Praxis Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects 5001 Ultimate Guide 2018-10-23T19:16:17+00:00

Praxis Elementary Education (5001): Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects?

Good!

You’ve found the right page. We will answer every question you have and tell you exactly what you need to study to pass the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects.

In fact, we will cover 4 key areas of the exam.

Praxis Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects 5001 Overview

The Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects exam is used by multiple states to measure the knowledge and skills of beginning elementary school teachers. It assesses the content knowledge needed to support a generalist elementary school license.

There are 4 subtests:

  1. Reading and Language Arts (5002)
  2. Mathematics (5003)
  3. Social Studies (5004)
  4. Science (5005)

You can register to take all or any combo of the four subtests in one session.

The exam is a computer-based test, but don’t worry, you just need basic computer skills. If you made it to this point in your education and career, you have nothing to worry about.

The test format includes selected-response and numeric-entry questions. An on-screen scientific calculator is provided for the Mathematics and Science subtests.

Here is the subtest format and time allotment breakdown:

Subtest Questions Time
Reading and Language Arts 80 90 Minutes
Mathematics 50 65 Minutes
Social Studies 60 50 Minutes
Science 55 50 Minutes

If you take all four subtests in one session (5001), you will have 4 hours and 15 minutes. Each subtest is separately timed.

Frequently Asked Questions About the Praxis Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects

Quick Facts

Cost: $170* (all four subtests)

$60* (each individual subtest)

*Nevada residents pay an additional $5 surcharge.

Dates and Locations: Tests are by appointment only, year-round. Click here to find a testing site near you.

What to Bring: In most cases, only one form of primary ID is needed containing your name, photograph, and a signature. For more detailed information, click here.

Number of Attempts: There are no limits on how many times you can take the test before you pass; however, you do have to wait 21 days between testing attempts.

Scoring: The passing score for each subtest varies by state:

Some tests offer you an opportunity to view unofficial scores right away; otherwise, official scores will be available online 10-16 business days after your test date.

Register for the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects here.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Praxis test do I need to take?

Each state using the Praxis tests sets its own testing requirements. Click here for information about your state’s requirements.

How long will the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test take me?

The full test itself is 4 hours and 15 minutes but expect to be at the testing site longer. It takes time to get checked in and get started. Plan to arrive at least 30 minutes before your appointment time.

Do I get a break during the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test?

Yes, you do. You can take a short, unscheduled restroom break after the conclusion of one subtest, but before reading the directions for the next subtest. The test clock will not start until your return from your break. Long breaks are documented by test administrators, so do not take more than 5-10 minutes for a break. So, while you don’t lose test time by taking breaks, you do need to make them quick.

What can I expect when I arrive at the testing site to take the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test? 

Watch this short video to understand what your testing day will look like.

Is the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test hard?

It’s not easy. In 2015-2016, the passing rates for Colorado were:

Subtest Passing %
Reading and Language Arts 83%
Mathematics 80%
Social Studies 75%
Science 75%

Source: Colorado Department of Education.

You have to study quality, trusted sources (like 240Tutoring).

How do I pass the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test?

To pass the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test, you must first understand what is on the exam and what you will be expected to know. The best way is to review the 240Tutoring test breakdown materials and practice questions. Once you identify areas of weakness, you can begin targeting those areas with instructional content and practice questions.

Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects Top 5 Tips

  • Make sure to answer every question (even if you guess)

  • Know how much time you have left

  • Eliminate incorrect answers first

  • Work through practice questions so you know what to expect

  • Study quality, trusted sources (like 240Tutoring)

Praxis Elementary Education Multiple Subjects: Reading and Language Arts

Overview

You will have 90 minutes to complete about 80 questions. Most questions will be single-selection multiple-choice with four answer choices; however, a minimum of four innovative item types, such as multiple selection, order matching, and grids will be included.

The Reading and Language Arts subtest can be neatly divided into two different sections. Those two sections are:

  • Reading
  • Writing, Speaking, and Listening

So, let’s start with Reading.

You need to know what phonological awareness is and specific terms like:

  • phonemes
  • onsets
  • rimes
  • syllables
  • blending
  • segmenting
  • substituting
  • deleting

Also, be aware of what phonics and word analysis are. This includes knowing the importance and purpose of sight words, the stages of language acquisition, and varying pedagogical approaches for English Language Learners.

And finally, know what fluency is, its components, and how to help students become fluent readers. We will talk more about this in just a minute.

The next big concept you need to know is about literature and informational texts.

First of all, you need to know that the term literature refers to fiction and the term informational refers to nonfiction.

For both literature and informational texts, you need to be able to identify key ideas and details, make inferences, create summaries, identify organizational structures, determine point of view, and analyze text complexity.

For just literature pieces, you need to be able to analyze characters and their relationships.

You will be asked to provide textual evidence to support your answers and claims. It is super important that you know how to use clues and evidence from the reading passages to help you answer the questions.

Now, those are the two broad concepts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Phonological Awareness

The first specific concept is phonological awareness. This is simply the ability to hear and distinguish between the smallest unit of sound. And the smallest unit of sound is otherwise known as a phoneme. Developing phonemic awareness among students is really going to help them as they learn to sound out words.

Now, there are a few best practices for teaching phonemic awareness, so you need to make sure that you research and understand what those best practices are.

Fluency

You need to know what fluency is and what the main parts of it are. In really simple terms, fluency is being able to read words correctly and quickly and not sound like a robot. The big parts of fluency are accuracy, automaticity, rate, and prosody. You need to know what these words mean.

Accuracy is reading the words correctly.

Automaticity is knowing the words right away. You don’t have to sound anything out or think about it. You just know it.

Rate is basically how many words a student can read per minute. But the kicker here is that a student needs to comprehend what they read. So, if they read way too fast and don’t understand what they just read, that’s no good. They need to read at a rate that also allows them to understand what they read.

Prosody is a fancy word for expression. Basically, you don’t want to sound like a robot. You want to read in phrases, not word by word.

Text Complexity

Text complexity is simply how challenging text material is for the students at their specific grade level. Determining text complexity is important in proper assessment of students because the level will help the teacher understand how best to interpret students’ assessment scores.

Qualitative evaluation of text complexity measures the qualitative dimensions of a text, such as the level of meaning, structure, language, conventionality, and knowledge demands. Qualitative evaluation of text complexity seeks to understand how difficult a text is for the reader.

Quantitative evaluation of text complexity measures the word frequency, word difficulty, and sentence length. Quantitative measures typically use a set formula and are calculated by computer software.

Writing, Speaking, and Listening

This section tests your knowledge on the types and processes of writing, standard English conventions, and the techniques of effective speaking and listening.

Writing, Speaking, and Listening questions make up about 53% of the Reading and Language Arts subtest.

There are three big concepts you definitely have to know to get these questions correct:

  • Writing
  • Language
  • Speaking and Listening

 The first big concept to know is all about writing.

For the test, you need to know the types of writing, the process of writing, the developmental stages of writing, and the basic steps of the research process. I’ll go into detail about two of these in a minute.

The writing section of the test has quite a few competencies, so make sure you take the time to read over them. Then find a great study guide to help navigate you through all of the content.

The next big concept to know is all about language.

You need to know the standard conventions for English, including:

  • grammar
  • usage
  • mechanics
  • spelling

On the test, you will have to correct grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling errors in sentences.

Also, be familiar with the parts of speech and how to determine the meaning of words.

Know what figurative language is and how to interpret it.

Finally, be familiar with vocabulary concepts, most importantly, the three tiers of vocabulary.

And the last big concept to know is about speaking and listening.

The main things you need to know for these questions are the techniques to communicate and the definition and characteristics of active listening and speaking.

Now, those are the three broad concepts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Let’s talk about four specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Developmental Stages of Writing

The stages of writing development will go from when a child is first learning to write (scribbling) to when they’re starting to use grammar and the finer points of grammar to make their point.

The stages of writing development are:

  1. Scribbling
  2. Mock letters
  3. Letter formation
  4. Word writing
  5. Sentence construction
  6. Spelling, punctuation, and grammatical expression

So, make sure you’re familiar with each stage of writing development, the characteristics, what students need to learn, and what kind of instructional activities they need to progress on to the next stage.

Writing Process

The writing process is specifically referring to what needs to happen to go from a not completed writing assignment to a completed writing assignment.

The stages of the writing process are:

  1. Prewriting
  2. Drafting
  3. Revising
  4. Editing
  5. Publishing

Make sure you know the purposes of each stage and how students should engage in each stage.

So, what should students be doing during the prewriting stage that differs than in the writing stage? And what should students be doing during the revision stage that’s different than in the editing stage?

All of this is almost guaranteed to come up on the test.

Figurative Language

Figurative language is when you use words or phrases in a different way than normal.

Figurative language includes:

  1. Alliteration
  2. Hyperbole
  3. Metaphor
  4. Onomatopoeia
  5. Personification
  6. Simile

There are more kinds of figurative language, but these are the ones most likely to come up on the test. Know these terms and be able to identify examples of each.

Active Listening

Being an active listener means that you are fully concentrating and focused on what a speaker is saying. You aren’t just “hearing” what is being said but listening. Active listening uses more than just your sense of hearing.

Active speaking is more than just saying words. The way you say something usually means more than what you say. Think eye contact, body language, tone, gestures, etc.

You need to know not only how to do both of these things, but how to teach students to be both active listeners and speakers.

Two big ways that students learn is through modeling and thinking aloud. If students see you being an active listener and speaker, they are likely to follow your lead.

And that’s some basic info about the Reading and Language Arts subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

We’ve got the best study guides for the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 test. So, if you’re feeling overwhelmed and you don’t even know where to begin to figure out how to teach phonemic awareness or how to identify the different characteristics of the stages of writing, we’ve got you covered.

You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

Get the Study Guide

Praxis Elementary Education Multiple Subjects: Mathematics

Overview

You will have 65 minutes to complete 50 multiple-choice questions. You will be presented with selected-response questions (both single-selection and multiple selection) and numeric entry questions. An on-screen scientific calculator will be available for use.

The Mathematics subtest can be neatly divided into three different sections. Those three sections are:

  • Numbers and Operations
  • Algebraic Thinking
  • Geometry and Measurement, Data, Statistics, and Probability

So, let’s start with the biggest, Numbers and Operations.

Numbers and Operations

This section tests your number sense and ability to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.

Number and Operations questions make up about 40% of the Mathematics subtest.

There are three big concepts you definitely have to know to get these questions correct:

  • Place Value
  • Operations and Rational Numbers
  • Number Theory and Reasoning

The first big concept to know is the place value system.

You need to know how to write numbers in various ways including numerals, words, and expanded form. For example, here are the various ways to write the number 523:

  • Numerals: 523
  • Words: five hundred twenty-three
  • Expanded form: 500 + 20 + 3

Make sure you understand place value (ones, tens, hundreds, etc.), both to the left and the right of the decimal, and exponents.

Finally, practice rounding numbers to any place value. You will have to round numbers to the tenths, hundredths, and thousandths.

Another big concept to know is operations and rational numbers.

A rational number is a number that can be written as a fraction (or ratio). Examples of rational numbers include: 7, 1.75, .003, -0.6, and .111.

You will be presented with multi-step and real-world problems where you must conduct operations with rational numbers.  When using division, be comfortable with remainders. Also, do lots of practice problems with fractions.

Most importantly, you have to know the order of operations. I’ll talk more about this in a minute.

Be prepared to represent numbers on a number line. You’ll also see numbers represented in drawings, models, and arrays.

Finally, be comfortable with converting between fractions, decimals, and percentages.

And the last big concept to be familiar with is number theory and reasoning.

You need to know what prime and composite numbers are and how to find factors and multiples. You also need to be able to reason and use mental math.

Now, those are the three broad concepts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Order of Operations

The order of operations, or PEMDAS, P-E-MD-AS, is simply the process you follow to simplify and work an equation.

Let me give you an example. If you have an equation like this:

2(x – 3) + 3(x + 4)2

You have to work the problem according to a specific order, the order of operations.

In this particular example, you would first solve for the parentheses, then you would solve for the exponents. Then going left to right, you do either multiplication or division, then you would add or subtract in the same order (from left to right).

So that’s why we group the M and the D and the A and the S together.

Now, this is incredibly important because, on the test, you will be required to simplify an equation. So, you have to know the order of operations to get that question correct.

Word Problems 

These problems will include all four operations (+, -, x, ÷).

Now, my biggest tip to help you with this is simply to work through a lot of authentic practice questions, specifically, word problems in mathematics.

Now, while these questions aren’t going to be the most complex, it does take a lot of practice to learn how to read a question prompt, understand the question, and then solve the problem.

And really, it’s just one of those things you have to practice, practice, practice. So, find a great source of authentic practice questions that you can use.

Prime and Composite Numbers

A prime number is a whole number that cannot be made by multiplying other whole numbers together (besides one and itself). Examples of prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11. There are many more.

You should also know what prime factors are and how to find them.

A composite number is a whole number that can be made by multiplying two other whole numbers together (besides one and itself). Examples of prime numbers include 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. There are also many more.

Algebraic Thinking

This section tests your ability to, you guessed it, solve algebra problems.

Algebraic Thinking questions make up about 30% of the Mathematics subtest.

There are three big concepts you definitely have to know to get these questions correct:

  • Expressions, Equations, and Formulas
  • Linear Equations and Inequalities
  • Patterns

The first big concept you need to know is how to solve expressions and equations and use formulas.

First of all, you have to know the difference between an expression and an equation. Look it up.

You will be asked to add and subtract linear equations, use the distributive property, solve simple expressions, use formulas, and represent words with equations or expressions.

Finally, know the difference between independent and dependent variables and be able to identify each in formulas.

The next big concept is linear equations and inequalities.

You will definitely be asked to solve linear equations and inequalities. These will be pretty basic with only one variable. Be ready to graph a solution on a number line and use equations, tables, and graphs to solve problems.

And the last big concept to know is patterns.

You need to be able to identify, extend, describe, and make patterns with both shapes and numbers. On the test, you may have to find a rule for a function table by looking at a set of two numerical patterns.

So, those are the three broad concepts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to know.

Solving for x

Solving for x is pretty straightforward. The test will give you an equation and then you have to solve for x. So, the test will give you an equation like:

4x2– 4(3 + 2) = 16

And in this equation, we would just need to balance the equation for x, so you would simplify it as much as you can, balance the equation, and you’d find that x equals three.

4x2 – 4(5) = 16

4x2 – 20 = 16

4x2= 36

x2= 9

x = 3

Now, take note. You are more than likely going to be presented with a real-world word problem. Be able to take what you need from the problem, build the equation, and solve for x.

You are also going to have to solve inequalities. Solving inequality statements in one variable, such as 3/4x – 9 > 21, is much the same as solving equations like those addressed above.

The only major differences are that:

  1. the direction of the inequality sign will change after some operations are performed
  2. a finished final answer generally requires the variable to be written on the left
  3. the solution set is often presented on a number line.

Creating an Equation from a Data Set 

The test will give you a data set that looks something like this:

X 1 2 3 4
Y -1 -3 -5 -7

And you’re required to create a corresponding equation that matches the data set. For this data set, the corresponding equation is:

y = 1 – 2x

Now, if you look at the data set, anytime you plug the x value in, you get the corresponding y value if you solve for the equation. And while this kind of question can seem difficult, it’s one of the easier questions to answer if you just work backward.

All you need to do is look at the answer options, plug in the data set values into each equation, and see if they match.

Difference Between Equations and Expressions

 It’s really pretty simple. The main difference between equations and expressions is an equals sign. An equation has one; an expression doesn’t.

Look at some examples.

Expressions:

  • 7x – 2
  • x2– 3x + 5
  • 3x2+ 5x + 9

Equations:

  • 8x = 16
  • 2x + 1 = 7
  • 20 – 7x = 6x – 6

Geometry and Measurement, Data, Statistics, and Probability

This section tests your knowledge on a wide range of math concepts including shapes, the coordinate plane, measurement, and the likelihood of an event occurring.

Geometry and Measurement, Data, Statistics, and Probability questions make up about 30% of the Mathematics subtest.

There are three big concepts you definitely have to know to get these questions correct:

  • Shapes
  • Measurement
  • Data and Probability

The first big concept you have to know for the test involves one-, two-, and three-dimensional shapes, their properties, and how to find perimeter, area, surface area, and volume.

You need to know these terms and how to identify them in shapes:

  • lines
  • rays
  • line segments
  • parallel lines
  • perpendicular lines
  • angles

Also, be able to find the area and perimeter of two-dimensional shapes and the volume and surface area of a right rectangular prism.

Finally, know what the coordinate plane is and how to solve problems with it.

The next big concept to know concerns measurement.

Be comfortable solving measurement problems with elapsed time, money, length, volume, and mass.

Also, you will be asked to measure and compare objects. Be familiar with both the customary and metric measurement systems.

And the last big concept to be familiar with is data and probability.

The most important thing to understand is what the measures of central tendency are (mode, mean, median, and range) and how changes in data affect each of these.

Be aware of and be able to create the different ways to organize and display data, like box plots, histograms, and scatterplots.

Finally, be able to determine the likelihood of an event happening.

Now, those are the three broad concepts to be familiar with. 

Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Measures of Central Tendency 

What does that mean?

It’s simply four concepts: mode, median, mean, and range.

Now, on the test, they’re going to give you a data set of about 8 to 12 numbers, and they’re going to ask you one or more of the following. What is the mode? What is the median? What is the mean? Or what is the range of the data set? They will also be embedded in real-world word problems.

So, you have to know what those central tendency measurements are and how to find them for a data set. And when you practice, work on a data set of about 8 to 12 double-digit numbers.

Pythagorean Theorem

The Pythagorean Theorem is used to find any length of a side of a right triangle (if you know the other two sides).

The equation of the Pythagorean Theorem is:

a2 + b2= c2

Where A and B are the two sides of the right triangle and C is the hypotenuse of the triangle.

And I guarantee you one thing, if you take anything from this, take this one thing: you will have a question about the Pythagorean Theorem on the test. That is an absolute guarantee. It will most likely be in some sort of word problem.

An example would be:

Billy walked three blocks west, and four blocks north. If Billy walked a straight line, how many blocks would Billy have walked?

Something like that will show up on the test.

Coordinate Plane

The coordinate plane is a two-dimensional number line with both an “x” and “y” axis. The “x” axis is horizontal, and the “y” axis is vertical. It has four quadrants (sections) and an origin (located at coordinates 0,0). You use a coordinate plane to plot points and graph lines and shapes.

Check out this great resource on the coordinate plane.

And that’s some basic info about the Mathematics subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

We’ve got the best study guides for the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 test. So, if you’re feeling overwhelmed and you don’t even know where to begin to figure out how to teach phonemic awareness or how to identify the different characteristics of the stages of writing, we’ve got you covered.

You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

Get the Study Guide

Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects: Social Studies

Overview

You will have 50 minutes to complete 60 selected-response questions.

The Social Studies subtest can be neatly divided into three different sections. Those three sections are:

  • United States History, Government, and Citizenship
  • Geography, Anthropology, and Sociology
  • World History and Economics

So, let’s start with the biggest, United States History, Government, and Citizenship.

United States History, Government, and Citizenship

This section tests your knowledge of the history of the United States, how its government operates, and the rights and responsibilities of its people.

United States History, Government, and Citizenship questions make up about 45% of the Social Studies subtest.

This section is already divided into three big (really big) parts:

  • History
  • Government
  • Citizenship

The first really big part is United States history. History is the study of human events from the past. While history can cover any and all past events, on the exam, history will really focus on a few main historical events and the impact of those events on the course of human history or the United States.

It’s important to know the cause and effect of historical events. So, as you study historical events, make sure you understand why that event is important and what effect that event had on the future of the country or world.

Let’s talk about some of those major events and other things you have to know.

  1. European exploration- You need to know why Spain, France, and England explored and colonized North America and what the results of their efforts were. Also, know how Native Americans play into this.
  2. American Revolution- Be aware of the causes of the American Revolution, the key players, and the key documents (Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution) of the rebellion.
  3. Major events and developments- These include slavery, westward expansion, Mexican relations, the Trail of Tears, technological innovations, immigration, the Civil War and Reconstruction, the Industrial Revolution, the Progressive Movement, women’s rights, etc.
  4. 20thcentury developments- You need to know about America’s role in World War I, women’s suffrage, the Great Depression and the New Deal, America’s role in World War II, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, Environmentalism, changing demographics, and the development of computers and information systems.
  5. Finally, you need to be able to make connections between the causes and effects of events.

This is a ton of information to have to study. A really thorough study guide would be an excellent resource to have. I know of a great one!

The next big part is about government. The rules, processes, and the people who make and enforce those rules and processes are the government.

You need to know the purposes and responsibilities of and the relationships between local, state, and the federal governments. You also need to know the intended and unintended consequences of various forms of government.

Be aware of the separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government, as well as the major responsibilities of each branch.

Finally, know about the major documents and speeches in American history, like the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights, and Gettysburg Address.

And the last big part deals with citizenship. This includes knowing about the rights and responsibilities of people in a democracy.

Important topics to note include specific rights (freedom of speech, religion, press, etc.), economic rights (property rights, right to unionize, etc.), legal obligations (jury duty, taxes, etc.), and the process of naturalization for immigrants.

Now, those are the three broad (very broad) parts to be familiar with concerning history, government, and citizenship.

Specific Concepts

Let’s talk about three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation were the original constitution of the United States of America (1781). They were a direct response to the complaints and concerns the colonies had with Great Britain.

The Articles severely limited the power of the new national government, creating a unicameral (one house) legislature that required 2/3 vote to pass any law.

Needless to say, lots of problems came up so the leaders of the colonies called for a convention to rewrite the law of the land.

Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement was a mass popular movement to secure equal rights for African-Americans who faced racism and segregation.

Some notable events to research and know are:

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1957)
  • Little Rock 9 (1957)
  • March on Washington (1963)
  • Selma to Montgomery March (1965)

Branches of US Government

There are three major branches of the US government:

  • Judicial Branch (headed by the Supreme Court)
  • Legislative Branch (Congress: House and Senate)
  • Executive Branch (the President, Vice President, the Cabinet, and the federal bureaucracy)

You need to know how each branch works, what it’s in charge of, and how the branches share powers and responsibilities (checks and balances).

Geography, Anthropology, and Sociology

This section tests your knowledge about Earth and its people.

Geography, Anthropology, and Sociology questions make up about 30% of the Social Studies subtest.

By looking at the exam competencies, this section is already neatly divided into two parts:

  • Geography
  • Anthropology and Sociology

The first big part to know is geography.  Geography looks at places and the relationship between people and those places.

For these questions, you need to be able to read and interpret different kinds of maps, use the features of maps, and be able to locate specific geographic features like the continents, oceans, major seas and rivers, major mountain ranges, and major countries and cities.

You will see at least one map on the exam.

You also need to know how people and the environment interact. This includes understanding seasons, weather and climate, settlement patterns, population trends, trade relationships, humans’ effect on the environment, natural resources, and ecosystems.

Finally, be prepared to answer questions about how we can use geography to help explain past and present events and plan for the future.

The last big part to know is about anthropology and sociology.

Both of these social sciences study people; however, the key difference is that anthropology focuses on culture, while sociology focuses on society.

Here’s what you need to study concerning cultural geography: how family addresses basic human needs, the importance of social institutions, cultural expression, socialization, social stratification and mobility, ethnic groups, and stereotypes, biases, values, and ideals.

Now, those are the two big parts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Maps

Because the Earth can be hard to visualize, geographers use maps and globes to help them.

Maps are two-dimensional renditions of a place. They can cover any area, ranging from a park to the whole world.

There are several different types of maps that you need to study for the test. They are:

  • Physical map
  • Political map
  • Topographic map
  • Climate map
  • Economic or resource map
  • Thematic map

You also need to know what features are on a map (compass rose, legend, etc.)

Climate

Climate is the average weather for a given place or location. There are ten distinct climates on Earth:

  1. Tropical rainforest
  2. Savannah
  3. Desert
  4. Mediterranean
  5. Humid subtropical
  6. Marine
  7. Humid continental
  8. Steppes
  9. Taiga
  10. Tundra

Research each of these climates, provide examples and be able to differentiate them by their unique features.

Human-Environment Interaction

Geographers are particularly interested in the interaction between humans and their environment, specifically, the way the environment impacts the development of culture and how human activity shapes the environment.

Human interaction with the environment resulted originally from efforts to obtain basic human wants: food, shelter, and clothing. Over time, as wants have become more complex, humans have exerted increasing control over the environment, attempting to shape it to their desires.

World History and Economics

This section tests your knowledge about the major past events of the world and the production, distribution, and consumptions of goods and services.

World History and Economics questions make up about 25% of the Social Studies subtest.

These questions are already divided into two parts:

  • World History
  • Economics

The first big part is about world history.

You need to know the major contributions of the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman civilizations.

Also, know the major happenings of the 20thcentury, including World War I, various revolutions, the worldwide economic depression in the 1930s, the rise of communism and fascism, World War II and the Holocaust, the rise of Germany and Japan, the Cold War, and globalization.

Finally, be sure to study the importance of comparing cultures in world history instruction. Why is it so important?

The last big part to study is economics.

Put simply, economics is the study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Be sure to know these basic key terms concerning economics:

  • supply and demand
  • scarcity and choice
  • money and resources
  • opportunity cost

Know the role of institutions like the Federal Reserve and how economics affects people like the division of labor and specialization.

Finally, understand what role the government plays in economics. This includes understanding the purpose of taxes, currency, national debt, the Federal Reserve System, Consumer Price Index, the federal budget, and Gross National Product.

Now, those are the two big parts to study and know. 

Specific Concepts

Let’s talk about three specific concepts.

Scarcity

Scarcity is the basic problem of the gap between our wants/needs and the available resources. No human has all of the resources necessary to fulfill every need and desire. Because of this, people must use cost-benefit analysis to make their choices. This means that they make trade-offs and decisions as to best allocate their resources.

Supply and Demand

In simple terms, supply is how much of something is available and demand is how much of something people want.

There are a lot of factors that affect supply and demand, and it’s actually pretty complicated. Take some time to read about supply and demand and know these terms:

  • Law of demand
  • Law of supply
  • Economics of scale
  • Equilibrium
  • Disequilibrium
  • Surplus
  • Deficit
  • Elasticity

Contributions of Ancient Egypt 

The most notable contributions from Ancient Egypt are their advancements in mathematics, written language (hieroglyphics), and the advancements in agricultural and military technology.

Their most famous achievement is the creation of the Great Pyramids. The pyramids epitomize Egyptian cultural advancements because they are geometrically perfect, the labor force was sustained through agricultural advancements that allowed large amounts of land to be cultivated with less labor, and they were not under threat of attack.

And that’s some basic info about the Social Studies subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

We’ve got the best study guides for the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 test. So, if you’re feeling overwhelmed and you don’t even know where to begin to figure out how to teach phonemic awareness or how to identify the different characteristics of the stages of writing, we’ve got you covered.

You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

Get the Study Guide

Praxis Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects: Science

Overview

You will have 50 minutes to complete 55 selected-response questions. An on-screen scientific calculator is provided.

The Science subtest can be neatly divided into three different sections. Those three sections are:

  • Earth Science
  • Life Science
  • Physical Science

Four competencies repeat under each section. Take a look at these.

Basically, make sure you understand that science is necessary and important, the foundation of science is inquiry (investigation), and all science is based on research. Scientists continue to question, gather data, and draw conclusions so that we gain a better understanding of life and the living and nonliving things in it.

Let’s move on to Earth Science.

Earth Science

This section tests your knowledge of the Earth and its atmosphere.

Earth Science questions make up about 33% of the Science subtest.

This section can really be broken into three broad parts:

  • Earth System
  • Space
  • Earth Cycles

The first big part to know is Earth Systems.

You need to understand the structure of the Earth and its properties. Know the major layers of Earth, what plate tectonics are, and the three major types of rocks and how they are formed. Research how soil is formed and what minerals are prevalent on Earth. Know details about the hydrosphere (oceans) of Earth and the atmosphere.

You also need to know the processes of the Earth system. Take some time to research these topics:

  • weathering
  • erosion
  • volcanoes
  • earthquakes
  • current
  • waves
  • tides
  • the water cycle
  • clouds
  • climate and weather

Finally, think about Earth’s history. This includes the origin of Earth, paleontology, and the rock record.

The next big part to know is about space.

Be familiar with the stars and galaxies, comets and meteors, the solar system and planets, and the relationships between the Earth, Sun, and Moon (think orbits, rotations, tilt, and cycles).

And the last big part to know is about Earth’s cycles.

Think about these cycles:

  • rock cycle
  • water cycle
  • carbon cycle
  • nitrogen cycle

Know what each is, the steps in them, and why they are important for the Earth.

Now, those are the three broad concepts to be familiar with.

 Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

The Water Cycle

Now, the water cycle is really talking about how water goes from the ocean into the atmosphere, turns into rain, falls on land, and then is transferred back to the ocean.

You see, the water cycle is one of the pillars of life on Earth. So, we have to understand it to get questions right on that Earth Science section.

Make sure you know the stages of the water cycle, what drives the water cycle, and these words:

  • evaporation
  • condensation
  • humidity
  • precipitation
  • surface runoff

Soil Formation and Composition

Soil formation occurs due to the weathering and erosion of rocks.

There are five components of soil:

  • minerals
  • organic material
  • living organisms
  • water and air
  • nutrients

Make sure you know what is in each component.

The process of soil formation takes many hundreds (or thousands) of years. So, a really long time.

Earth’s Layers

The Earth is divided into 4 distinct layers:

  • crust
  • mantle
  • outer core
  • inner core

The crust is cool, solid rock that floats on the denser rock beneath.

The mantle is hot, but not enough to melt rock into a liquid. Instead, the material here is like hot Play-Doh. It can move, but only very slowly.

The outer core is super-hot liquid rock material.

The inner core is a solid chunk of mostly iron and nickel. Even though it is very, very, hot, the pressure of all the weight of rock above it causes the inner core to remain in a solid state.

Life Science

This section tests your knowledge on living organisms and life.

Life Science questions make up about 33% of the Science subtest.

There are four big concepts you definitely have to know to get these questions correct:

  • Living Systems
  • Reproduction, Heredity, and Change
  • Ecology
  • Personal Health

The first really big concept to know is about living systems.

You need to know the characteristics of living things, the different parts of cells (plant and animal), and the different types and purposes of tissues and organs.

Be familiar with these life process terms and ideas:

  • photosynthesis
  • respiration
  • transpiration
  • transport of water and solutes

The next big concept to know concerns reproduction, heredity, and change.

It is important to understand living things’ normal growth and development.

Know that genetics is the study of heredity. Be familiar with these genetic terms:

  • DNA
  • dominant
  • recessive
  • genes
  • Punnett squares
  • chromosomes

Finally, you need to understand how living things change over time. Think about life cycles, mutations, adaptations, and natural selection.

Another big concept to know is ecology.

To understand living things’ regulation and behavior, you need to know the terms stimuli and homeostasis.

Be sure to know the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms and the major groups of eukaryotic organisms.

Finally, think about how organisms depend on each other. It will come in handy to know the following terms:

  • populations
  • communities
  • ecosystems
    • food chain
    • food web

And the last big concept to know concerns personal health.

To get these questions right on the test, you really need to think about healthy lifestyles versus unhealthy lifestyles. Think about good nutrition and what that looks like. Also, know what communicable (infectious) diseases are and how substance abuse harms the mind and body.

Those are the four broad concepts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Now, I’m going to give you four specific concepts to be familiar with.

Living versus Nonliving Things

There are seven characteristics of living things:

  1. use energy
  2. movement
  3. breathing
  4. get rid of waste
  5. grow and develop
  6. respond to environment
  7. reproduce

Some non-living things may have a couple of these characteristics, but a living thing will have all of them.

Be sure to know these characteristics and what they mean.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process plants use to convert light energy into chemical energy. In simpler terms, it is how plants use the sun to make food for themselves.

Be sure to understand this process.

Habitat versus Niche

You really need to know the difference between a habitat and a niche.

A habitat is defined as the physical location where an organism lives.

A niche is how that organism lives within the habitat. When defining a niche, three factors are considered for survival and reproduction: physical factors (sunlight, soil composition, pH, temperature, and humidity), biological factors (competitors, parasites, prey, and predators), and behavioral factors (diurnal patterns, movement, and social organization).

Life Cycles 

Living organisms go through distinct changes from birth to death. Different types of life cycles and the stages of development can be distinguished depending on the type of organism.

Water, temperature, and light are some environmental conditions that can affect the development of an organism. The majority of common organisms including dogs, snakes, and fish have a simple, three-stage life cycle, which includes the egg, birth of young, and adult stage. The young are similar to the parent, just smaller in size.

Plants also have a simple life cycle, which includes the seed, seedling, and adult.

The life of an insect can be categorized as either complete or incomplete metamorphosis. Complete metamorphosis is a four-stage cycle in which the young look completely different than the adult. An example of such an organism is the butterfly. The four stages include the egg, larva, pupa, and adult.

Incomplete metamorphosis consists of three stages in the life cycle: egg, larva (nymph), and adult. The dragonfly and grasshopper both have this type of life cycle.

Physical Science

This section tests your knowledge about non-living systems (think physics, chemistry, astronomy, etc.).

Physical Science questions make up about 33% of the Science subtest.

There are three big concepts you definitely have to know to get these questions correct:

  • Matter
  • Force and Motion
  • Energy Transformations 

The first big concept you have to know is about matter.

Matter is everything that has mass and takes up space. You need to know these things about matter:

  • physical properties of matter
  • conservation of matter
  • physical and chemical changes of matter
  • mixtures and solutions
  • atoms and elements
  • molecules and compounds

The next big concept to know is force and motion.

To get these questions right, you need to know the different types of motion (circular, relative, etc.). You also need to think about speed, distance, and time relationships.

Read over Newton’s laws of motion and think of real-life examples that apply to each law.

Finally, you have to know about forces and equilibrium. This includes knowing about friction, centripetal force, and Newton’s universal law of gravitation.

And the last big concept you have to know for the test is all about energy.

Energy is the ability to do work or apply a force over a distance.

Know that energy is never created or destroyed; it only changes forms. And it can be transferred is a bunch of different ways.

There are two broad kinds of energy: kinetic and potential. Know what these are and the differences between them.

There are also many forms of energy like chemical, electrical, heat, light, sound, etc.

To understand interactions of energy and matter, you need to know about the different types of waves (sound, light, infrared, radio, X-rays, gamma rays).

You also need to think about light and color, mirrors and lenses, and heat and temperature. Remember that heat and temperature are not the same things! Heat can be caused by conduction, convection, and radiation.

Finally, study electricity and magnetism. Know the ways that electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion.

Now, those are the three broad concepts to be familiar with.

Specific Concepts

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Potential and Kinetic Energy 

Remember, energy is the ability to do work or apply a force over a distance. There are two broad classifications of energy.

Potential energy is stored energy. A rock on the edge of a cliff has potential energy because gravity might pull it down.

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. When potential energy is used, it turns into kinetic energy. So, if that rock falls down the side of the cliff, during its fall, it has kinetic energy.

Make sense? Good! Be sure to know the difference between potential and kinetic energy.

Newton’s Laws

Newton’s first law, the law of inertia, says that an object resists changes in its state of motion. Remember this? “An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by an equal or opposite force.”Think about why seatbelts are important.

The second law explains why objects with greater mass require more force to move the object. Force = mass * acceleration.

Newton’s third law explains why objects move in the opposite direction of the greater force. “For every action, there is an equal or opposite reaction.”

Take some time to look up Newton and his laws of motion.  

States of Matter 

States of matter are defined by the arrangement of the atoms or molecules.

A solid has particles packed together in a relatively fixed position and has a definite shape and volume.

Liquids have a definite volume, but no definite shape so they take on the shape of their container. The particles of a liquid are close together, not packed, and move around more than those of a solid.

The particles of a gas are moving so quickly and far apart that they fill all available space. Substances in the state of a gas do not have a fixed shape or volume; they take the shape of their container.

And that’s some basic info about the Science subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

We’ve got the best study guides for the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 test. So, if you’re feeling overwhelmed and you don’t even know where to begin to figure out how to teach phonemic awareness or how to identify the different characteristics of the stages of writing, we’ve got you covered.

You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

Get the Study Guide

Praxis Elementary Education Multiple Subjects 5001 Practice Test

English (5002) Practice Test

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

Which of the following would be the most effective to develop students’ reading fluency?

  1. Choral readings
  2. Readers’ theater
  3. Round-robin readings
  4. Repeated readings

Correct answer: 4. 

Repeated readings consist of reading the same passage with a student either 4 times or until they can read the passage at 85-100 words per minute with minimal mistakes. This is a great exercise to help promote students’ reading fluency.

Question 2

Which literary device assigns human characteristics to inanimate objects or abstract concepts?

  1. Imagery
  2. Personification
  3. Paradox
  4. Metonymy

Correct answer: 2. 

Personification is the attribution of human qualities to animals, inanimate objects, or ideas.

Question 3

Students in Mrs. Smith’s fourth-grade classroom are being taught how, in original texts, to use appropriate writing conventions that will enhance the communication of their writing. Which of the following lists include ways to do this?

  1. Penmanship, capitalization, and use of the alphabetic principle
  2. Capitalization, punctuation, and research techniques
  3. Penmanship, capitalization, and punctuation
  4. Penmanship, punctuation, and use of visuals

Correct answer: 3. 

Legible writing, along with appropriate punctuation and capitalization are extremely important in written communication.

Question 4

Which of the following phonemic awareness skills will students most likely master first?

  1. Deleting the initial phoneme in “ball” to make “all”
  2. Breaking down the word “ball” into three separate phonemes
  3. Recognizing that the word “ball” sounds like “fall” and “tall”
  4. Substituting the “b” sound in “ball” to a “t” sound to make “tall”

Correct answer: 3. 

This is the simplest recognition of phonemic awareness skills. Comparing similar sounding words is easier and less complex than manipulating phonemes in words.

Question 5

Which of the following sentences best demonstrates active listening?

  1. “I liked the movie because of all the famous actors and action sequences.”
  2. “How could you not like the movie?”
  3. “John thinks the movie overlooked the plot in favor of extended action sequences.”
  4. “I will write on my blog that the movie was entertaining.”

Correct answer: 3. 

Active listening is a process of being engaged and responding to another person in a way that builds and improves communication. Active listeners spend more time listening than speaking. Paraphrasing someone else’s thoughts best demonstrates active listening because it demonstrates an understanding of another person’s communication.

Mathematics (5003) Practice Test

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

What are the prime factors of 18?

  1. (2²) * (3²)
  2. 2 * (3²)
  3. (2²) * 3
  4. 2 * 9

Correct answer: 2. 

The prime factors of a number are the prime numbers that divide the integer exactly. The prime numbers then can be multiplied together to equal that number. The prime factors of 18 are (2 * (3²)). Solving prime factors of most integers involves completing the factor tree of an integer until only prime numbers are used. For 18, the factor tree would be: 18 = 2 * 9 = 2 * (3²).

Question 2

Order the following numbers from greatest to least: -2, ½, 0.76, 5, √2, π.

  1. 5, π, √2, 0.76, -2, ½
  2. 5, π, √2, 0.76, ½, -2
  3. -2, 0.76, ½, √2, π, 5
  4. -2, ½, 0.76, √2, π, 5

Correct answer: 2. 

This is correctly ordered from greatest to least. The largest number is 5, which rules out answer choices C and D. The biggest issue here might be deciding which is larger: π or √2. It is important to know that a good estimate for π is 3; it is good to know that √2, the square root of 2, is some irrational number slightly bigger than 1. So π > √2 and so far, we have: 5, π, √2. 0.76 is close to 0.75 or 3/4, which is bigger than 1/2. -2 is the smallest, the only number less than 0. So, the correct order is 5, π, √2, 0.76, 1/2, -2.

Question 3

What is the area, in square units, of the figure above?

  1. 20
  2. 22
  3. 26
  4. 30

Correct answer: 3. 

The area of the shape can be found using the information from the picture. One way to solve the problem is to think of the shape as a square and a triangle; finding the area of each shape and combining those areas will give the total area. The area of the square is length (L) multiplied by the width (W). The length of the side, before the shape of the triangle begins, which is 5, multiplied by the width of the square, which is 4: 5 * 4 = 20. The area of a triangle is the height of the triangle (H), times the width of the triangle (W), divided by ½. The height of the triangle can be found by subtracting the total length of the shape by the length before the triangle shape begins: 8 – 5 = 3. The height of the triangle is 3. The area of the triangle is (3)*(4) / ½ = 6. The area of the triangle (6) plus the area of the square (20) is 6 + 20 = 26 square units.

Question 4

The data above is presented in a stem and leaf plot. The data represents the grades on a recent math test given by Mr. Davis and Mrs. Smith. What is the range for Mrs. Smith’s class?

  1. 43
  2. 100
  3. 57
  4. 60

Correct answer: 3. 

The range of data for Mrs. Smith’s class is: high – low = 100 – 43 = 57.

Question 5

X 2 6 9 12
Y 7 19 28 37

What equation describes the linear relationship shown in the above table?

  1. y = 3x + 1
  2. y = 2.5x
  3. y + 1 = 3x
  4. y + 3x = 1

Correct answer: 1. 

The table above is correctly represented by the equation y = 3x + 1.

Social Studies (5004) Practice Test

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

Which of the following best describes the primary goal of the first French explorers of North America?

  1. Establish a vibrant fur trade
  2. Discover a western sea route to trade with Asia
  3. Convert American Indians to Christianity
  4. Establish a military outpost to combat Spanish dominance of North America

Correct answer: 2. 

Jacques Cartier was the first Frenchman to explore North America. He was sent in 1534 under commission from the French king to find a western passage to the lucrative markets of Asia. A secondary goal of Cartier, and subsequent French explorers, was establishing land claims for France. Eventually the land claims proved to be profitable and the hope of finding a western passage was discarded. As more French explorers claimed North American land and established forts for France, French missionaries and adventurers migrated to the New World to convert Indians and capitalize on the emerging lucrative fur trade.

Question 2

Which of the following best describes the importance of the Egyptian pyramids?

  1. Forts to protect the food supply
  2. Tombs for the dead pharaohs
  3. Temples for worship
  4. Storehouses for the pharaohs’ treasures

Correct answer: 2. 

The tombs were to hold the mummies of the dead pharaohs until their spirit was transported into the afterlife.

Question 3

The division of power between the United States federal government and the states which compose the union of the United States demonstrates the principle of:

  1. democracy.
  2. federalism.
  3. constitutionalism.
  4. checks and balances.

Correct answer: 2. 

Federalism is a political concept, or principle, of members joining together with a governing representative head. The states in the United States of America join together and are bound by a common federal government.

Question 4

Which of the following will most likely result in a price decrease and sales decrease for smartphones?

  1. A decrease in demand for smartphones
  2. An increase in demand for smartphones
  3. A decrease in supply of smartphones
  4. An increase in supply of smartphones

Correct answer: 1. 

A decrease in demand for smartphones will likely decrease the price and sales of smartphones. If people do not want to buy smartphones, then prices will drop to entice consumers to purchase the smartphones and sales will likely decrease because people are not interested in smartphones.

Question 5

The map above highlights large urban and suburban areas in the United States. What, if any, similarities do the different megalopolises share?

  1. All cities were founded after the states had been established
  2. All cities are established in right-to-work states
  3. No similarity exists among all the cities
  4. They are located adjacent to major waterways

Correct answer: 4. 

All the cities highlighted on the map are located near major waterways. This is because it is easy to transport goods along waterways and cities to be developed near large ports due to the wealth and resources concentrated in port areas.

Science (5005) Practice Test

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

The tilt of the Earth:

  1. causes the seasons
  2. causes the tides
  3. causes gravitational attraction
  4. causes magnetic fields

Correct answer: 1. 

The Earth’s tilt on its axis causes the four different seasons.

Question 2

The Earth’s atmosphere is mainly composed of oxygen and which of the following elements?

  1. nitrogen
  2. carbon dioxide
  3. hydrogen
  4. helium

Correct answer: 1. 

The main components of the Earth’s atmosphere are oxygen and nitrogen. It is also composed of small amounts of carbon dioxide and argon and very small amounts of other gases.

Question 3

While Susan is viewing cells under a compound microscope, she notices that the cells do not appear to have any specialized organelles. These cells are most likely which of the following?

  1. animal cells
  2. plant cells
  3. eukaryotic cells
  4. prokaryotic cells

Correct answer: 4. 

Prokaryotic cells do not contain specialized, membrane bound organelles (ex. bacteria, blue-green algae, and other primitive microorganisms).

Question 4

Kim bought some fireworks to shoot off on the 4thof July. She noticed several different powders mixed together in the tube. As the chemicals were ignited, what evidence did she observe that would indicate a chemical reaction had occurred?

  1. a change in color
  2. the chemicals breaking up in the atmosphere
  3. an explosion at different heights
  4. a change in state from a liquid state to a solid

Correct answer: 1. 

There are indicators that show a chemical reaction has occurred: has production (bubbles), change in temperature (release of absorption of energy), color change, and/or production of a precipitate (formation of a solid).

Question 5

Peter had to ask his neighbors for help when he was moving because he needed help pushing his piano up the ramp of the moving truck. Peter could not move the piano without help because of the piano’s mass. This situation relates to which of the following of Newton’s Law?

  1. Newton’s First Law
  2. Newton’s Second Law
  3. Newton’s Third Law
  4. Newton’s Fourth Law

Correct answer: 2. 

Newton’s Second Law states that the force needed to move an object is related to the mass of the object. Heavier objects require more force to move them. In this scenario, Peter can’t move the piano by himself because he doesn’t have enough strength to create a large enough force.

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