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RICA Written Examination Ultimate Guide2019-01-16T18:11:06+00:00

RICA Written Examination: Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the RICA?

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You’ve found the right page. We will answer every question you have and tell you exactly what you need to study to pass the RICA. Browse our study guide and take our free RICA Written Examination practice test below.

RICA Written Examination Test Overview

Quick Facts

Domain 1: Planning, Organizing, and Managing Reading Instruction Based on Ongoing Assessment

Domain 2: Word Analysis

Domain 3: Fluency

Domain 4: Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge

Domain 5: Comprehension

Case Study

RICA Written Examination Overview

The RICA, or Reading Instruction Competence Assessment, tests knowledge of effective reading instruction and the candidate’s ability to apply that knowledge in five RICA domains:

  • Planning, Organizing, and Managing Reading Instruction
  • Word Analysis
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge, and
  • Comprehension

The purpose of the RICA is to assess the knowledge of California-trained candidates for Multiple Subject Teaching Credentials and Education Specialist Instruction Credentials (special education) in their knowledge, skills, and ability to deliver effective reading instruction to students.  

Format:

The RICA written examination is a 4 hour, computer-based test.  

Take a look at the breakdown:

https://www.ctcexams.nesinc.com/content/docs/RICA_Test_Structure_Tables.pdf

Cost:

$171

Scoring:

The passing score is 220.

Individuals earn a raw score. The raw score is based on the total points received for answers. The raw score is then converted to a scale score. The highest scale score possible is 300 and the lowest possible is 100.

Points are allotted for questions answered correctly. If you do not know an answer, you can make an educated guess without endangering your score. There are no deductions for wrong answers.

Pass rate:

From 2010-2015, first-time passing rate for individuals taking the RICA exam was 69.9%. The cumulative rate for passing the RICA, including multiple testing, is 90.7%.

Study time:

Study time will vary from person to person, but you should plan on allowing yourself several weeks to prepare. Plan to study until you feel comfortable answering all practice questions. It may be helpful to create a study schedule to ensure you will have time to study each section of the test.

What test takers wish they would’ve known:

  • Pay close attention to questions that include the words “not” or “except,” indicating that you need to choose the answer choice that does not fit the question.
  • Do not overthink the questions – there are no “trick questions” on the test.
  • There is no penalty for incorrect answers, so it is better to guess if you do not know an answer.
  • Double check your answer before moving on to the next question.

Information and screenshots obtained from the California Educator Credentialing Assessments website: http://www.ctcexams.nesinc.com/Home.aspx

Domain 1: Planning, Organizing, and Managing Reading Instruction Based on Ongoing Assessment

Overview

Domain 1 has about 10 multiple-choice items.

This domain has 2 competencies:

  • Plan, Organize, and Manage Reading Instruction
  • Reading Assessment

       

So, let’s start with Plan, Organize, and Manage Reading Instruction.

Plan, Organize, and Manage Reading Instruction

This section tests your knowledge of planning, organizing, and delivering reading instruction that meets the needs of all students.

Let’s discuss some concepts that will more than likely appear on the test.

Content Standards

Content standards are statements set forth by a governing body that dictate what students should learn at each grade level. The content standards referred to on the RICA are the English Language Arts (ELA) Content Standards or California Common Core State Standards. California reading teachers are required to implement these adopted Common Core State Standards when planning, organizing, and delivering reading instruction.

Differentiation of Reading Instruction

Differentiation, or differentiated instruction, is when teachers create learning opportunities for their students by pairing student characteristics to instruction and assessment. All students have access to the same classroom curriculum by providing scaffolding, learning tasks, and outcomes that are personalized to students’ needs. It is not a strategy but an approach that incorporates a variety of strategies.

Teachers can differentiate in response to a student’s skill level and background knowledge. Differentiation for a student can be based on topics of interests that motivate a student to learn. Differentiation can match a student’s learning style, or learning profile, such as visual, auditory, tactile or kinesthetic. Differentiation also refers to the learner’s grouping preferences such as individual, small group, or large group. Environment preferences, like lots of space or a quiet area to work, is also a way teachers can differentiate.

Teachers can differentiate content, process, and/or products for their students. When a teacher differentiates content, the material being learned is changed.  For example, if the objective is for students to read short vowel words, some may work to read one syllable short vowel words while others read multisyllabic short vowel words. Differentiation of process refers to the way in which a student accesses material. One student may read ebooks while others read printed books. Differentiation of product refers to the way in which a student demonstrates mastery. One student may give verbal responses while other students write their responses.

Flexible grouping is when students are intentionally and fluidly organized for different learning experiences over a relative short period of time. These groupings are matched to task purpose and created by assessment results and other student characteristics. Groups may be formed and reformed according to specific goals, activities, and individual needs. Groups range from individual, partner, small group, to whole-class. Teachers may group students who do not understand a reading concept or skill. Students may be grouped with others who are reading on approximately the same reading level. They may be partnered with someone who reads at a higher reading level for modeling purposes.

Individualized instruction focuses on the needs of the individual student. Teachers target one specific need at a time. Some students who receive individualized instruction need remediation. Special education is an example of individualized instruction. Other students participating in individualized instruction may skip topics or skills they have mastered to advance or enrich the lesson.

During whole class reading instruction, the teacher leads the direct instruction using traditional textbooks or reading materials with minimal differentiation. It is a good first step in the learning process before other instructional groupings occur.

Components of Effective Instructional Delivery

The orientation is the planning phase of the lesson. The teacher maps out learning opportunities for students to master the reading objective to be taught. The teacher considers the objective to be mastered along with relevant vocabulary, materials to be used, and outcomes. The teacher also gathers information such as student assessment results and thinks about students’ learning needs. The teacher then scaffolds a plan for lesson delivery, considering appropriate grouping, differentiation, and scaffolding.

Guided practice is when the students practice the intended learning to master the objective with minimal assistance. As soon as the teacher observes the student can perform the skill or objective to be mastered, the guided practice ends and independent practice starts.  

Independent practice is the part of the lesson when the student demonstrates mastery of the objective taught. During the application phase, the student uses the skill or objective mastered in a different setting or text other than what was used to teach the lesson.  

Reading Assessment

This section tests your knowledge of the three main purposes of reading assessments: entry-level, monitoring of student progress, and summative.  

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Student Progress Monitoring

Student progress monitoring is periodic assessment of academic performance to measure a student’s or group of student’s rate of improvement, acquiring of a skill, or response to intervention and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction on the way to a goal. During progress monitoring, consideration should focus on the reliability and type of evidence-based tools used, while attending to cultural and linguistic responsiveness and recognition of student strengths.

Summative Assessment

Summative assessments evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit. Student learning is compared against a standard or benchmark.

Reading Levels

  • Independent Reading Level- the level of text difficulty at which a reader makes very few errors with minimal or no help. Independent reading level is when a student reads a text at 95%-100% accurately. Teachers should select reading material at a student’s independent level for independent practice.
  • Instructional Reading Level- the highest level in which a reader is not independent. The reader has sufficient background knowledge for a topic and can decode text with few errors. The text is challenging, but manageable for the reader.  

At this level, teachers are able to assist students in acquiring reading skills. Instructional reading level is when a student reads a text at 90%-94% accuracy. The text is challenging enough for growth to occur without the reader becoming frustrated. Reading material at a student’s instructional level is used when the teacher helps the student acquire a new skill or concept.

  • Frustration Reading Level- the level at which text is too difficult for the student to read. If a student reads a text at an accuracy rate of below 90%, it is at the frustration level. Decoding the text is a hindrance for the student to comprehend or make meaning from. Frustration reading level text may be used with extensive support where the teacher is one-on-one with the student.

And that’s some basic info about Domain 1: Planning, Organizing, and Managing

Reading Instruction Based on Ongoing Assessment.

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Domain 2: Word Analysis

Overview

Domain 2 has about 24 multiple-choice items and 1 focused educational problem and instructional task (150- to 300- word response).

This domain has 5 competencies:

  • Phonological and Phonemic Awareness
  • Concepts About Print, Letter Recognition, and the Alphabetic Principle
  • Phonics Instruction
  • Phonics Knowledge/Skills and Sight Words
  • Syllabic/Structural Analysis and Orthographic Knowledge

       

So, let’s start with Phonological and Phonemic Awareness.

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

This section tests your knowledge of the difference between and roles of phonological awareness and phonemic awareness. It assesses your knowledge of research-based, systematic, explicit instruction to teach phonological awareness and phonemic awareness to meet students’ needs, including English Learners.

Let’s discuss some concepts that will more than likely appear on the test.

Phonological Awareness

Phonological awareness is the identifying and manipulating of sounds. It includes distinguishing and manipulating the sounds within a spoken word. Included in phonological awareness are parts of spoken words, spoken syllables, and spoken onsets and rimes.

Phonemic Awareness

Phonemic awareness is the ability to focus on and manipulate individual phonemes, or sound units, in spoken words. It does not involve print, yet it is necessary for the learning of sound-print relationship critical to proficient reading and spelling.   

Onset/Rime

An onset is the initial phonological unit of any word. A rime is the string of letters that follow an onset, usually beginning with a vowel and the final consonants of the word. Let’s look at some examples:

Concepts About Print, Letter Recognition, and the Alphabetic Principle

This section tests your knowledge of concepts about print, letter recognition, and the alphabetic principle as a part of learning to read, as well as how to instruct students’ development in these areas.

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Concepts About Print

Concepts about print is the idea, that for a given language, print is organized in a way to promote meaning. Let’s take a look at some print concepts:

  • Print conveys meaning and is used for different purposes.
  • There is a relationship between speech and print.
  • Print is read from left to right and from top to bottom.
  • Letters and words are different. Letters make up words. Words are separated by spaces.
  • Words and sentences are different. Words make up sentences. A sentence is a complete thought.
  • Punctuation marks signal how to read and give meaning to sentences.
  • Books have parts such as a front and back cover and title page.

The Alphabetic Principle

The alphabetic principle is the idea that letters and letter patterns represent sounds of spoken language. It is the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between spoken sounds and written letters.

Phonics Instruction

This section tests your knowledge of the role of phonics and sight word instruction in reading development. You will be tested on your understanding of how accurate, automatic word recognition supports development in reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.  

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Types of Consonant Sounds

There are two basic sounds in the English language, vowels and consonants. Vowels are sounds where, when spoken, the mouth is open and vocal cords vibrate (or are voiced). Common vowels are the sounds of A, E, I, O, and U. Consonant sounds are sounds that are not vowels. When spoken, the mouth may be open and unvoiced, closed and voiced, or closed and unvoiced.

Let’s look at the different types of consonant sounds:

  • A digraph is two or more adjacent consonants that make one sound
    • th as in mother
    • sh as in ship
    • ch as in church
    • ng as in king
  • A blend is two or more adjacent consonants in which all the consonant sounds are heard
    • spr and nt as in sprint
    • bl and ck as in black
  • Silent consonants are adjacent consonants in the same syllable where one or more of the consonant sounds are silent
    • kn as in knee
    • gn as in gnat
    • ght as in light

Vowel Digraphs

A vowel digraph is two adjacent vowels in the same syllable that make one sound. Take a look at these vowel digraphs:

  • ai as in rain
  • ee as in sheep
  • oa as in boat
  • ue and ay as in Tuesday

Vowel Diphthongs

A vowel diphthong is two adjacent vowels in the same syllable that make an unexpected sound. When the sound is spoken, the mouth moves more than one time. Take a look at these vowel diphthongs:

  • oi as in coin
  • oy as in toy
  • aw as in paw
  • au as in automatic

Vowel R Combination or Bossy R

A vowel r combination, or bossy r, is a vowel followed by an r. Vowel r combinations make unique sounds.

  • ar as in car
  • ir as in bird
  • ear as in hear
  • ur as in turn

Common Word Patterns

Words are taught around common patterns such as syllables or onsets and rimes. A syllable is a word or part of a word with one vowel sound. There are six basic syllables:

  • Closed Syllable (VC)- a vowel in a closed syllable, followed by a consonant, is short
    • hot, cat, fun, it
  • Open Syllable (V)- a vowel in an open, accented syllable is long
    • hi, go, be
  • Vowel, Consonant, Silent e (VCe)- when the vowel is followed by a consonant and e, the e is silent and the vowel is long
    • make, bite, shake
  • R-Controlled (Vr)- a vowel, followed by one r, not followed by another r, is an r-controlled sound
    • car, stir, her, fur, for
  • Vowel Teams (VV)- two adjacent vowels in the same syllable is a vowel digraph or dipthong
    • Vowel Digraphs- snow, team, stay
    • Vowel Diphthongs- coin, boy, paw
  • Final Stable Syllable (Cle)- a consonant, followed by l, then followed by e at the end of a word is always read the same little, pickle, uncle, cuddle

Phonics Knowledge/Skills and Sight Words

This section tests your understanding of how to instruct students in phonics and promote sight word automaticity.  

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

High-Frequency Words

A high-frequency word is a word that is immediately recognized as a whole and does not require word analysis for identification. Good readers instantly recognize high-frequency words without having to decode them. Sight words are usually “high-frequency” words, which occur most frequently in our language. Two types of high-frequency word lists are the Dolch List and the Fry List.

Decodable Text

Decodable text is reading material, used during beginning reading instruction, that fits a certain phonics pattern being taught. It is designed so that beginning readers can use their newly acquired phonics skills to practice decoding in context and begin to access meaning while decoding.

Syllabic/Structural Analysis and Orthographic Knowledge

This section tests your understanding of how a reader’s ability to analyze syllables and other structural features, along with orthographic knowledge, affects the reader’s ability to be automatic in word recognition and contributes to spelling development.   

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Syllabic Analysis

Syllabic analysis is the study of syllable types and syllable division patterns to help students decode words. A syllable is a word or part of a word with one vowel sound. There are six basic syllable patterns in the English language (which we talked about earlier).

Beginning readers start by learning one syllable words. Then they progress to two and three syllable words. Syllable division patterns are introduced. Here decoding becomes more complex when some syllables are accented and some are unaccented.

Phonograms

Phonograms are groups of letters which share the same combinations associated with a sound (think rhyming words). Teaching words in phonograms gives students consistency in learning to decode and spell.

  • ight- might, light, bright, sight
  • dge- edge, bridge, pledge, badge
  • aught- faught, taught, caught

Orthographic Knowledge

Orthographic knowledge is stored memory that tells the student how to represent spoken language in written form. Orthography is the conventional spelling pattern of a language. It is putting sounds together to form words.

Domain 3: Fluency

Overview

Domain 3 has about 8 multiple-choice items and 1 focused educational problem and instructional task (75- to 125- word response).

This domain has 2 competencies:

  • The Role of Fluency
  • Fluency Development

       

So, let’s start with The Role of Fluency.

The Role of Fluency

This section tests your understanding of the factors that positively and negatively affect students’ development of fluency in all stages of reading development.

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Components of Fluency

There are four components of fluency: accuracy, rate, prosody, and automaticity.

Let’s talk about each.

Accuracy

Accuracy is the percentage of words read aloud correctly. Accuracy percentage equals the number of words read correctly divided by the total number of words in the passage.

Rate

Rate is the speed at which a passage is read. Readers should read words fast enough so that comprehension can be constructed. Rate is expressed as words per minute. The formula for rate (or words per minute) equals the number of words read correctly times 60 (seconds) divided by the time the reader took to read the passage in seconds.

Prosody

Prosody is the expression used to describe a reader’s pitch, stress, and timing. Prosody is used to convey meaning. Effective readers read in meaningful phrases or chunks. Their use of intonation is their verbal demonstration of punctuation marks.

Automaticity

The goal of decoding is automaticity. Automaticity is when readers are able to spontaneously identify words without having to decode the words. Automaticity allows readers the ability to access prior knowledge and build meaning for comprehension. If a reader takes too long to decode text, meaning can be lost.

Fluency Development

This section tests your knowledge on factors that affect a students’ decoding of passages.  

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Effective Fluency Instruction

Guided, repeated oral readings at a reader’s instructional level allow students to practice fluency. Most important is the teacher’s systematic and explicit guidance and feedback.  

Phrase-Cued Reading

Phrase-cued reading is an effective intervention strategy for improving students’ phrasing abilities and prosody. Teachers create phrase-cued text passages. A phrase-cued text is a written passage that is divided according to natural pauses that occur in and between sentences.  

To create a phrase-cued passage, the teacher will use a 100-250 word passage on the reader’s instructional or independent reading level. The teacher marks the sentence boundaries of the passage with double slashes (//). The teacher places single slashes (/) within the sentence where naturally occurring phrases based on meaning occur.

And that’s some basic info about Domain 3: Fluency.

       

Domain 4: Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge

Overview

Domain 4 has about 15 multiple-choice items and 1 focused educational problem and instructional task (75- to 125- word response).

This domain has 2 competencies:

  • The Role of Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge
  • Development of Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge

       

So, let’s start with The Role of Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge.

The Role of Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge

This section tests your knowledge on the factors that affect students’ development of vocabulary, academic language, and background knowledge in reading growth.

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

The Matthew Effect

The Matthew Effect is the idea that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.  The Matthew Effect applied to reading theorizes that readers who have a slow start learning to read do not progress as quickly as readers who have a strong foundation. As time passes, this gap only widens. This is a strong argument for early intervention and developing pre-reading skills during the preschool years.

Word Consciousness

Word consciousness is the expression used to describe the reader’s way of prioritizing or finding new words and figuring out what they mean. Readers look for multiple meanings and add the new words to the reader’s linguistic repertoire.

Development of Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge

This section tests your knowledge on the components of research-based instruction for vocabulary development.  

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Semantic and Morphological Maps

Semantic maps, sometimes called graphic organizers, are webs of words that visually display the meaning-based connections between a word or phrase and a set of related words or concepts.

Morphological maps are visual displays of the meaning-based connections of morphemes (units of meaning). These maps are a graphic representation of a morpheme linked to its meaning.

Synonyms and Antonyms

A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase.

  • old and ancient
  • finish and complete
  • rich and wealthy

An antonym is a word or phrase that means the opposite as another word or phrase.

  • forget and remember
  • start and end
  • rich and poor

And that’s some basic info about Domain 4: Vocabulary, Academic Language, and Background Knowledge.

Domain 5: Comprehension

Overview

Domain 5 has about 13 multiple-choice items and 1 focused educational problem and instructional task (150- to 300- word response).

This domain has 4 competencies:

  • Literal, Inferential, and Evaluative Comprehension
  • Comprehension Instruction
  • Comprehension of Narrative/Literary Texts
  • Comprehension of Expository/Informational Texts and Study/Research Skills

       

So, let’s start with Literal, Inferential, and Evaluative Comprehension.

Literal, Inferential, and Evaluative Comprehension

This section tests your knowledge on factors that affect comprehension such as word analysis, fluency, vocabulary, academic knowledge, and background knowledge.

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Inferential Reading Comprehension

Inferential reading comprehension is the ability of the reader to process and understand the underlying meaning of the text. For example, let’s say a piece of text states that a character has a smile on his face. The reader can infer that the character is happy. If the text states that it is snowing, the reader can infer that it may be winter. Inferential comprehension requires readers to combine ideas, draw conclusions, interpret and evaluate information, and identify the tone and voice of a passage.

Evaluative Reading Comprehension

Evaluative reading comprehension is the ability of the reader to comprehend at a higher and more complex level of understanding. Evaluative reading comprehension involves critical analysis of the text. The reader must be critical, form opinions, and identify the author’s point of view, attitudes, messages, and themes. This also includes when the reader is able to identify and consider motives of characters.

Listening Comprehension

Listening comprehension is making sense of spoken language. It includes recognizing speech sounds, understanding the meaning of individual words, and understanding the syntax of sentences in which the words are spoken. The ability to comprehend what is heard enhances the developing reader’s ability to comprehend what is read. During listening comprehension activities or learning opportunities, readers do not have to focus on decoding. They can focus on comprehension skills.

Comprehension Instruction

This section tests your knowledge of research-based, explicit instructional techniques in comprehension.

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Visualizing

Readers who comprehend construct mental images as they read. The reader uses prior knowledge and background experiences to connect to the text with a personal picture. Effective reading instruction involves explicit instructional strategies that guide students to visualize. These activities teach students how to create their own mental pictures as they read.

Text-to-World Connection

Readers who make personal connections between the text and their own life experiences comprehend at higher levels of thinking. An example would be when a reader says:

“This story reminds me of the time my family went on a vacation to Washington D.C.”

Comprehension of Narrative/Literary Texts

This section tests your understanding of how to facilitate developing readers’ comprehension and analysis of narrative/literary text and their development of literary response skills.

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Story Elements

Story elements are the characteristics that make a story a story. The five basic story elements include:

  • Characters
  • Setting
  • Plot
  • Conflict
  • Resolution

Understanding how story elements work allows the reader to comprehend the logical sequence of a story. This understanding enables the reader to monitor his/her comprehension. Story elements should be explicitly taught through both listening and reading comprehension activities. The teaching of story elements begins with pre-readers.

Literature Circles

Literature circles are small groups of readers put together to have deep discussions of a specific piece of literature. The discussion is guided by the students’ response to what they have read. The topic of literature circle discussions may be around the events and characters in the story, the author’s craft, or personal connections the readers made with the story. By participating in literature circles, readers develop the ability to discuss, define, and critically explore a text.

Literary Response Journals

A literary response journal is a place for readers to respond to a piece of literature. The reader writes thoughts and reflections about the text. The reader states opinions about the story elements, theme, or moral of the story including text evidence.

Comprehension of Expository/Informational Texts and Study/Research Skills

This section tests your understanding of how to promote students’ comprehension and development of study and research skills.  

Here are some concepts that you may see on the test.

Common Expository/Informational Text Structures

Expository/informational text is written in various structures or arrangements. Students who understand how these structures work are better able to comprehend the text. Teachers must explicitly show students how to recognize, analyze, and comprehend these various structures. Here are some examples of expository/informational text structures:

Chronological- chronological structure is text arranged in a sequence or time order. Key words that occur in chronological texts are:

  • First, second, third
  • In the beginning,
  • Before, previously
  • Not long after,
  • Finally

Cause/Effect- cause/effect is text arranged in relationships of why something happens and then the result. Key words that occur in cause/effect texts are:

  • Such as
  • Because
  • So
  • Consequently
  • Therefore
  • Since

Problem and Solution- in a problem and solution text, authors organize their ideas by presenting a problem that needs to be solved. Then, the solution is explained. Key words that occur in problem and solution texts are:

  • Problem is
  • Dilemma
  • If – then
  • Answer
  • Solved
  • Reason why

Text Features

Text features like the table of contents, index, glossary, graphic features, titles, and subtitles are the basic characteristics of expository/informational text. Authors of expository texts use these structures to arrange and connect ideas. Students who understand and are able to use these text features are able to comprehend the text. Teachers must explicitly teach how to use text features as a guide to comprehending the text.

Evaluating Internal Consistency of a Text

The internal consistency of an expository/informational text refers to the degree to which how well the author conveys the intended message. It is the extent to which the ideas are supported with explanations, examples, and/or reasons. Teaching students to look for internal consistency of expository/informational texts enables them to comprehend better and critically.

And that’s some basic info about Domain 5: Comprehension.

Case Study

Overview

You will be given:

  • substantial background information on a student
  • samples of materials illustrating the student’s reading performance

You will be asked to:

  • assess the student’s reading performance
  • describe appropriate instructional strategies
  • explain why these strategies would be effective

It is critical that you consider all five domains of the RICA Content Specifications when formulating your review of the student and remediation. You will be asked to review the student’s data to find three reading issues. These issues may all be weaknesses, strengths, or a combination of both. When telling about the reader’s issues, be sure to include evidence you found in the student’s data.

You will also be asked to tell about two strategies to use to address your student’s reading issues. For each strategy, you will explain how each one will help address your student’s reading issues. One strategy will address two or more issues. When explaining how a strategy would be beneficial for the present time, also explain how the reader can apply the strategy in the future.

Because writing this essay is such a complex, big task, you should first chart or map out your ideas:  3 issues with supporting data, 2 strategies, explanation of how each strategy is beneficial now and in the future, and include all 5 RICA Domains.

Domain 1 Practice Test and Answers

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

Mr. Mather is approached by a parent about how to encourage reading and improve reading skills for their children at home. Which of the following is the most effective recommendation for Mr. Mather to make?

  1. Reading aloud books with the children at home
  2. Allowing the children to observe adults reading at home
  3. Providing the children props and costumes to act out stories at home
  4. Providing audio books for the children to listen to at home

Correct answer: 1. This is correct because research shows reading aloud with children is the best way to promote childhood literacy.

Question 2

Mrs. Spears wants to incorporate regular silent reading into her weekly schedule. Which of the following ways should Mrs. Spears incorporate this practice into her weekly schedule to provide the best conditions for the students to improve their individual reading skills?

  1. Students engage in silent reading for one hour once a week while the teacher reads a book to model reading behavior
  2. Students read for 30 minutes at random intervals while Mrs. Spears grades papers
  3. Students read silently when they finish their work before other students finish their work
  4. Students have scaffolded silent reading for 20 minutes every day while Mrs. Spears consults with individual students about their reading progress

Correct answer: 4. This is the best answer because the students’ reading is being supported by the teacher. Scaffolded reading is where the teacher and other school personnel work to ensure the students have the appropriate level literature and that they have accountability of their reading.

Question 3

As part of developing appropriate study skills, students in a fifth-grade class are being retaught, with both guided and independent practice, how to effectively study and learn information from texts. Which of the following best describes the meaning of guided and independent practice?

  1. The students are being enabled to draw conclusions from graphic sources
  2. The teacher has students attempt to use the study skills by themselves to see how they do and then will later provide guided practice
  3. The teacher first provides practice in using the study skills with his/her help and then provides additional practice time in which students use the skills by themselves
  4. The students are going to be tested over the information that they are reading

Correct answer: 3. This is the correct answer. Students have been typically taught some study skills in earlier grades but usually have a lot more independent work to do in the fifth grade. Therefore, there is a need for teaching and reinforcing appropriate study skills.

Question 4

Which of the following is the best way to assess the fluency skills and reading levels of sixth-grade students?

  1. Having students read aloud for one minute and count the number of words read correctly
  2. Having students read silently and write down unfamiliar words
  3. Having students read silently and answer questions that follow the reading
  4. Having students read aloud to determine how fast they can read a text

Correct answer: 1. The students must read aloud for a teacher to assess their reading fluency. How fast the students read does not, by itself, determine the students’ fluency and reading levels. The teacher needs to identify the number of words read correctly while the students read aloud, not silently.

Question 5

A first-grade teacher reads a story aloud while the students echo the words the teacher has read. Which of the following approaches to reading instruction is the teacher using?

  1. Readers’ workshop
  2. Shared reading
  3. Round-robin
  4. Guided reading

Correct answer: 2. Shared reading is an activity where students participate in the reading of the text while being guided or supported by the teacher. This question is a great example of a shared reading activity.

Question 6

Ms. Hardy demonstrates the five-finger rule to her students and explains how to use the rule to select the students’ independent reading material. Which of the following is Ms. Hardy most likely trying to develop in her students?

  1. The ability for students to measure their reading fluency
  2. The ability for the students to gauge their interest in a book
  3. The ability to gauge the readability level of texts
  4. The ability for students to identify major literary elements of a text or passage

Correct answer: 3. The five-finger rule is when a student picks up a book he would like to read, turns to any random page, reads the full page, and holds up one finger for every word he doesn’t know. If the student holds up five or more fingers, then the book is too difficult. The five-finger rule is used to gauge the readability of a text.

Question 7

Which of the following is a developmentally appropriate objective for an average second-grade student?

  1. To analyze the major theme or motif of a text
  2. To read from left to right
  3. To analyze and understand the different perspectives of characters in the story
  4. To identify the main idea of a text

Correct answer: 4. This would be a developmentally appropriate objective for an average second-grade student.

Question 8

A language arts teacher has students use a data notebook to monitor their reading fluency and progress. Each month the students set a new reading goal and monitor their progress towards that goal during the month, utilizing their data notebooks. Which of the following is the greatest benefit of this process?

  1. Improving students’ reading fluency
  2. Guiding students on how to best choose independent reading level literature
  3. Encouraging students to explore a wide variety of genres and formats
  4. Encouraging students to think about their reading progress

Correct answer: 4. The notebook allows students to track their reading fluency progress. The greatest benefit of this is that students are able to track their reading progress over a period of time.

Question 9

Ms. Garcia works with teachers, principals, and older students at her school to have them help guide the reading instruction once a week. After the reading, Ms. Garcia and the person with whom she collaborates that week with have a discussion with the students and work to make a collage of the story’s theme. Which of the following is the most likely primary goal of the activity?

  1. Providing professional development between Ms. Garcia and the other teachers or principals
  2. Introducing students to a variety of genres using a diverse pool of guest readers
  3. Collaborating with other members of the school community to improve students’ reading comprehension skills
  4. Allowing students to meet other teachers, principals, and students throughout the school

Correct answer: 3. While allowing students to meet other people at the school is a goal of the activity, it is unlikely the primary goal. There are many activities which can better allow students to meet other teachers, principals, and students in the school. It is also unlikely that an instructional activity’s primary goal is to enhance the students’ social understanding of the school. Ms. Garcia is not actively engaging in professional development. There is no mention of a variety of genres in the question prompt.

Question 10

Which of the following statements about reading instruction is most accurate?

  1. Reading should be taught to students by separating individual concepts and addressing each concept separately
  2. Students who do not ask for individualized reading instruction should not be provided individualized reading instruction
  3. Reading comprehension is increased when reading fluency is increased
  4. It is best to assess students’ reading comprehension through formal assessments

Correct answer: 3. This is a correct correlation.

Domain 2 Practice Test and Answers

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

Mr. Fischer assigns his students to list ten commonly used words that can either stand alone or be combined with another word to make a new word. Which of the following concepts does this activity best promote?

  1. Distinguishing root words
  2. Making compound words
  3. Blending sounds in words
  4. Analyzing sound-symbol relationships

Correct answer: 2. Compound words are words that can stand alone or be combined with other words to create new words.

Question 2

Phonological awareness is the ability to identify:

  1. individual words, sounds, and syllables
  2. individual sounds
  3. phonics
  4. syntax

Correct answer: 1. Phonemic awareness, not phonological awareness, is the ability to identify individual sounds, divide words into individual sounds, and blend together sounds. Phonics is recognizing sounds and the corresponding letters. Syntax relates to the rules that guide the building of words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Question 3

A first-grade teacher can formally and informally assess students’ phonemic awareness development in a variety of ways including all EXCEPT:

  1. having the student read silently and write down certain syllables.
  2. repeating the words back after the teacher says them aloud.
  3. having the student blend together sounds into words that the teacher gives orally.
  4. having the student give rhymes to short words that the teacher gives orally.

Correct answer: 1. When a student is reading silently, the teacher cannot assess the pronunciation. Also, phonemic awareness is the ability to hear individual sounds, not necessarily read them. Therefore, this is the answer to the question.

Question 4

A kindergarten teacher is creating a unit on tigers to focus on the letter “T”. Which of the following activities best contributes to the students’ understanding of this alphabetic principle?

  1. Brainstorming words that begin with the first letter of the students’ names
  2. Giving students a collection of pictures and having them label the objects that begin with the letter “T”
  3. Creating a rhyme or song that explains how to spell the word “tiger”
  4. Cutting out pictures of objects that begin with the letter “T”, from an assortment of pictures that only begin with the letter “T”, and pasting them into a collage.

Correct answer: 2. Cutting out pictures of objects…” is incorrect because it focuses on a variety of pictures of objects that begin with the letter “T” and not the connection between the name of the objects and their connection with the letter “T”. “Brainstorming words…” is incorrect because it does not focus on the letter “T”. It is better to teach the alphabetic principle one letter at a time and focus on one letter in context. Creating a rhyme or song, while a helpful spelling activity, does not promote the students broad understanding of the letter “T”.

Question 5

Most students in Mr. Powers’ kindergarten class can identify two or more words that rhyme. Which of the following phonemic skills is most appropriate for the teacher to address next?

  1. Blending the initial consonant sounds in words
  2. Naming the beginning sounds in words
  3. Pronouncing all the sounds in words that contain two or three phonemes
  4. Blending the final consonant sounds in words

Correct answer: 2. This is the appropriate next step in phonemic awareness.

Question 6

A first-grade teacher notices several students are having difficulty understanding and mastering phonological and phonemic awareness skills. Which of the following assignments would best provide opportunities for students to work on these skills at home?

  1. Writing the alphabet on notebook paper
  2. Playing word games and sound games with family members
  3. Listening to stories on tape or at a home computer
  4. Pointing out vowels and consonants when reading words aloud

Correct answer: 2. Word games and sound games allow students to hear individual sounds in words. This is the best answer.

Question 7

Which of the following words should a teacher use to demonstrate structural analysis for vocabulary development?

  1. Maintain
  2. Dog
  3. Unknown
  4. Develop

Correct answer: 3. Unknown is the best option for structural analysis because it contains a prefix and root word that can be deconstructed.

Question 8

Which of the following would not be one of the appropriate strategies to promote letter identification among first-grade students at the beginning of the school year?

  1. Students write the alphabet in order every morning when they come into class
  2. Students write the beginning letter in the air or on the carpet when the teacher says a word
  3. Students use magnetic or paper letters to hold up when the teacher calls out a specific letter from the beginning of a word
  4. Students identify individual letters when the teacher uncovers one letter at a time from a written word

Correct answer: 1. This does not necessarily help students identify letters unless they also pronounce the letters as they write them. Therefore, this is not a strategy that is especially helpful for letter identification in a first-grade class, at the beginning of the school year.

Question 9

A teacher notices that students are having difficulty decoding words like “moon”, “groan”, and “boat”. Which of the following areas of instruction should the teacher plan to support students’ decoding skills?

  1. Phoneme blending
  2. Word syllabication
  3. Vowel digraphs
  4. Open syllables

Correct answer: 3. Vowel digraphs are two vowels that make one sound. All the words listed have two vowels that make one sound, which can be difficult for students to properly pronounce and thus, properly understand the word.

Question 10

A kindergarten teacher begins each class by reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. The teacher has a poster with the words to the Pledge of Allegiance and taps each word as the class recites the Pledge. By tapping the word on the poster in correlation with reciting the word, the teacher is best demonstrating which of the following?

  1. Phonological awareness
  2. Concept of print
  3. Alphabetic principle
  4. Decoding

Correct answer: 2. The concept of print is the awareness of print in the everyday environment with an emerging understanding of how printed language works. In this example, the teacher points to the words as she says them, allowing the students to understand the correlation between the spoken and written words.

Domain 3 Practice Test and Answers

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

A teacher wants to develop reading fluency in his first-grade class. Which of the following would be the most effective activity to enhance the students’ reading fluency?

  1. Rereading stories that were used during a guided reading activity
  2. Engaging in a literary discussion group in the library
  3. Reading a book or essay on a level above the students’ independent reading levels
  4. Creating a graphic organizer after reading a student-chosen book

Correct answer: 1. Students acquire reading fluency and comprehension from books read during guided reading lessons with the teacher. Repeated readings from familiar books improve reading fluency.

Question 2

Mr. Harper wants to assess his students’ reading fluency by listening to each student orally read a section from a selected text. Which of the following would NOT be a good indicator for Mr. Harper to use in assessing the students’ reading fluency?

  1. The variation in students’ reading intonation
  2. Consistency of the students’ reading rate
  3. How clear students are able to pronounce words
  4. Students’ accuracy of word identification

Correct answer: 3. This is the least appropriate assessment indicator because how clearly students can pronounce words can depend on a variety of factors that are not related to reading fluency.

Question 3

Which of the following strategies would be least appropriate for increasing fluency among fifth-grade students?

  1. Provide reading materials on many different levels and areas of interest
  2. Have students re-read passages silently or to a partner because the students’ fluency increases with familiarity
  3. Provide CDs and/or DVDs for students to listen repeatedly to while following along with the printed books
  4. Consistently drill with the 500-1,000 most frequently occurring words they encounter until they can recognize these words by sight

Correct answer: 4. Students need repeated opportunities to listen to written text being read correctly in order for their fluency to be enhanced. They often need help with pronunciations along with boosting their own confidence. Having students re-read passages silently or to a partner can enhance fluency in reading. Students do need to be familiar and confident with the written text that they are expected to read fluently. It is important to provide materials on different levels and areas of interest in order to meet the needs of all students on all levels. By having available materials on their specific levels, students will become more confident in reading and become more fluent.

Question 4

Research in the area of fluency instruction indicates repeated and monitored ____ reading improves reading fluency.

  1. Oral
  2. Silent Oral
  3. Choral (with all the students reading simultaneously)
  4. Character

Correct answer: 1. There is not a type of reading called character reading. Silent reading is an incorrect answer even though it might enhance fluency. The problem is that in many instances, students get off-track with silent reading unless there is accountability for what has been read. With choral reading, students can look like they are actually reading but are only “mouthing” the words.

Question 5

Which of the following would be the most effective to develop students’ reading fluency?

  1. Choral readings
  2. Readers’ theater
  3. Repeated readings
  4. Round-robin readings

Correct answer: 3. Repeated readings consist of reading the same passage with a student either 4 times or until they can read the passage at 85-100 words per minute with minimal mistakes. This is a great exercise to help promote students’ reading fluency.

Question 6

Which of the following would be the most appropriate strategy when using below reading level books to increase reading fluency with a student who is struggling with grade level reading fluency?

  1. Have a younger student read easy books aloud to the older, struggling student
  2. Have an older student read easy books to the struggling student
  3. Provide opportunities for the student to read easy books to a younger student
  4. Encourage classmates to correct the struggling student during read aloud sessions

Correct answer: 3. This activity allows a student to gain confidence in his reading while taking ownership of a reading activity by using a text that would be easy for the student to read fluently.

Question 7

A student’s reading fluency and word identification can be affected by various factors. Which answer choice encompasses the factors of fluency and word identification?

  1. Understanding the purposes of reading
  2. Having a mastery of listening skills
  3. Home language, vocabulary development, and a learning disability
  4. Understanding basic linguistic concepts

Correct answer: 3. This is the correct answer. These are the major factors affecting students’ fluency and word identification.

Question 8

A third-grade teacher reads a fictional story to the class and bases activities on one character of the story. The teacher assigns the same story to be read that night with parents/guardians and provides questions based on another character. Which of the following would this lesson best promote?

  1. Reading for a purpose and fluency
  2. Reading of expository text
  3. Phonetic skills
  4. Text organizing

Correct answer: 1. This is the correct answer. Students’ fluency can be promoted by re-reading familiar text, and fluency might be enhanced through repeatedly reading even parts of the story with parents.

Question 9

A teacher is creating a reading fluency handout for parents so that parents can support the students’ reading development at home. Which of the following should the teacher encourage in the handout to parents?

  1. Parents should read every night before bed and talk about what was read with their child in the morning
  2. Have your child read aloud the same text multiple times while the parent listens to the child
  3. Ensure your child is reading multiple texts above his reading level aloud throughout the week
  4. Make sure your child reads silently for 30 minutes each night

Correct answer: 2. This is a great strategy for improving the students’ reading fluency.

Question 10

By the time students are in fourth- and fifth-grades, teachers expect the students to be fluent in reading, which comes from having and using a large repertoire of word identification skills. Fluency involves:

  1. understanding connotative meaning along with the rate and accuracy of reading
  2. using structural cues, syntax, and semantics
  3. denotative meaning, understanding narrative text, and rate of reading along with using state norms
  4. rate, accuracy, and intonation along with state norms

Correct answer: 4. This is the correct answer. These are the areas in which fluency is involved.

Domain 4 Practice Test and Answers

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

A teacher wants to create a vocabulary list from the magazines and newspapers students use during instruction. Which of the following would be the most effective method to create the vocabulary list for students?

  1. Choosing words from the district vocabulary list that appear in the publications
  2. Choosing vocabulary words based on the teacher’s experience from previous years of instruction
  3. Asking students to identify words they do not know during their first reading of the article
  4. Using publications specifically created for in-school use

Correct answer: 3. This is the best option because students will be able to identify words most necessary for their reading development.

Question 2

For a warm-up activity each morning, a teacher will post a word in front of the class. In response to the word, the students must write a synonym and an antonym, provide a student-created definition, and use the word in a sentence. Which of the following skills is the teacher most likely trying to promote using this warm-up activity?

  1. Decoding
  2. Phoneme breakdown
  3. Contextual analysis
  4. Vocabulary

Correct answer: 4. Students must connect various words through thinking of synonyms, antonyms, and a student-created definition. This all promotes students’ vocabulary skills.

Question 3

Mr. Brand wants to promote the vocabulary development of his students. Which of the following strategies would best align with current research on promoting vocabulary development among students?

  1. Mr. Brand should introduce new vocabulary words by incorporating them into multiple aspects of instruction and in various contexts
  2. Mr. Brand should identify new words in the textbook lesson and create a vocabulary list for students
  3. Mr. Brand should introduce and focus on fifteen vocabulary words or less each week
  4. Mr. Brand should introduce new words and their definitions without incorporating the words into the instruction until students show mastery of the vocabulary

Correct answer: 1. Introducing new vocabulary words by introducing them in a variety of contexts and in instruction is the best way to promote vocabulary development among students.

Question 4

While reading aloud in front of the class, the teacher comes across the word “desirable”. The teacher then points to clues in the surrounding text that help the student to understand what “desirable” means. Which of the following strategies is the teacher modeling?

  1. Phonemic awareness
  2. Contextual analysis
  3. Morphemic analysis
  4. Structural analysis

Correct answer: 2. Contextual analysis is using the context of words to decode their meaning. This is the strategy being utilized by the teacher.

Question 5

Which of the following would best promote the development of students’ reading vocabulary?

  1. Review students’ journal entries with the student
  2. Provide students time to read independently
  3. Have students read different perspectives of the same historical event
  4. Provide students with books at, or near, their frustrated reading level

Correct answer: 2. Students should read at or near their targeted independent reading level. Students’ reading fluency and decoding ability are greatly hindered when they read at their frustrated reading level. If students cannot decode words, they cannot increase their vocabulary. Having students read different perspectives can help students increase their knowledge and understanding of perspective, but would not directly impact their reading vocabulary. Students will journal with already known vocabulary. Students must be exposed to new vocabulary to learn new vocabulary.

Question 6

Denotative meaning is:

  1. the clear specific meaning often derived from a dictionary.
  2. the meaning derived from various hints, suggestions, or feelings.
  3. the meaning resulting from the use of a rubric.
  4. the meaning derived from the use of a chart or graph.

Correct answer: 1. This describes denotative meaning as it is the specific meaning of a word or visual image.

Question 7

Mrs. Radcliffe, a first-grade English teacher, wants to support her students’ vocabulary development. Which of the following activities would best support her students’ vocabulary development?

  1. Introduce new vocabulary words by exposing students to them in several contexts
  2. Have students recite ten vocabulary words from the word wall in the classroom
  3. Have students work in groups to define new vocabulary words by analyzing their root words
  4. Have students write the definitions of new vocabulary words in a journal

Correct answer: 1. This is the best strategy to introduce new vocabulary words. Providing multiple contexts for one word allows students many ways to scaffold the new word into their vocabulary.

Question 8

Which of the following statements best aligns with research-based vocabulary instruction practice?

  1. Students should learn a selected amount of age-appropriate vocabulary words in multiple contexts
  2. The teacher should expose students to the most age-appropriate vocabulary words possible each day
  3. Students should copy definitions from selected, age-appropriate vocabulary words from the dictionary
  4. Students should learn vocabulary words without context before introducing the words in context

Correct answer: 1. This is the best answer. Students should learn a selected amount of words in multiple contexts so they can understand the variety of the new words. Learning new words in context makes remembering the new words easier for students.

Question 9

A fourth-grade teacher realizes that her students are not familiar with many reference materials. Therefore, she will provide practice in using:

  1. a thesaurus
  2. a dictionary
  3. software
  4. all of the above

Correct answer: 4. This is the correct answer. Students need to easily and quickly be enabled to utilize these reference materials.

Question 10

Which of the following most contributes to students’ vocabulary development?

  1. Independent reading
  2. Explanation of the importance of phonemic awareness
  3. Writing word definitions
  4. Direct instruction of vocabulary words

Correct answer: 1. Explaining the importance of an abstract reading concept does not help promote students’ vocabulary development. Writing word definitions can help students’ vocabulary, but independent reading helps scaffold the vocabulary into the students’ schema. Direct instruction, or lecture, of the vocabulary words is not the best option because students are not able to properly scaffold or engage with the new words. Research shows the best way to increase vocabulary is through reading because it allows the student to see the words in context.

Domain 5 Practice Test and Answers

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

A sixth-grade teacher is presenting a unit about propaganda to her students. The teacher shows various propaganda advertisements and asks the students to detect faulty reasoning among the advertisements. Which of the following levels of reading comprehension is primarily being targeted in the lesson?

  1. Literal
  2. Inferential
  3. Evaluative
  4. Appreciative

Correct answer: 3. Evaluative comprehension includes the skill of detecting faulty reasoning. Students must apply the information they receive with previous understanding, experience, and knowledge to make judgments about the text.

Question 2

A second-grade teacher is going to read a story about two children visiting the aquarium. Which of the following activities is the best way to introduce the text to promote comprehension?

  1. Complete a KWL chart
  2. Listen to the story on audio
  3. Have students write about their own experiences with aquatic animals
  4. Find the aquarium on a map

Correct answer: 1. This is correct because having students complete a KWL chart before and after reading the text helps build and activate background knowledge, which promotes reading comprehension.

Question 3

Which of the following would not be beneficial in improving a student’s note-taking skills?

  1. Provide the lecture notes in paragraph form with strategic blanks for the students to fill in as the teacher lectures, especially at the beginning of the school year
  2. Provide an outline with the main points given and blanks for the students to complete the details as the teacher lectures
  3. Create the expectation from the beginning of school that there will be a grade taken on students’ notes at least once a week
  4. Have students take notes after it has been modeled and practiced on a graphic organizer, the type which is based on the lecture

Correct answer: 3. The incorrect answers are good ways to get fifth-grade students to understand the way notes should be taken and hold them accountable for filling in blanks with specific information.

Question 4

A second-grade teacher wants to develop students’ skills in understanding new texts. Which of the following activities would best help students develop an understanding of a new text?

  1. After reading the story have students complete a fill-in-the-blank quiz
  2. Have students make predictions about the ending of the story before reading the story
  3. Have students record mental images that are generated from reading the story
  4. Partner students together and have them take turns reading similar stories aloud and asking each other questions about the story

Correct answer: 3. Having the students quiz after reading the story is incorrect because the teacher may provide the quiz before students have been able to connect the events of the text or fully comprehend and analyze the text. While having the students making predictions about the ending is a great strategy for activating background or previous knowledge, this is not the best option to help students understand new texts. Partner reading does not assure reading comprehension nor the improvement of self-monitoring skills.

Question 5

Mrs. Jones is a fourth-grade reading specialist and has been asked by a number of teachers how to enhance the comprehension skills of their students, especially with expository text. Mrs. Jones checks for the teachers’ understanding of various comprehension strategies. Which one of the following responses is NOT a comprehension strategy?

  1. Making generalizations about related events
  2. Developing a schema
  3. Visualizing events or information
  4. Using phonological awareness skills

Correct answer: 4. This is the correct answer. Phonological awareness is when a student can hear distinct sounds, words, and/or syllables. They don’t necessarily comprehend these words even if they do figure out how to pronounce them.

Question 6

Inferential comprehension is that which comes from reading and understanding of:

  1. the correct use of vowel digraphs
  2. information that is not stated explicitly
  3. making a correct prediction
  4. the proper use of decoding skills

Correct answer: 2. This is the correct meaning of inferential comprehension.

Question 7

Mrs. King tells her fifth-grade students that she is going to explain and model a strategy that should help them learn how to self-monitor their own comprehension development. Which strategy would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. The teacher starts reading aloud as she is displaying the text on a slide or students are following along in a book; the teacher then pauses and asks a question aloud to herself about what she is reading
  2. Students read aloud to a partner an assigned story and then discuss the events
  3. Students develop questions about what they have read and exchange them with a partner
  4. The teacher models how to develop a text map to determine the main idea

Correct answer: 1. This is the correct answer. It is called “Think Aloud” and it is important for teachers to model this process so students can actually see and hear the thinking process that goes for effective comprehension.

Question 8

Expository reading in the fourth-grade classroom often requires students to use which of the following strategies to promote their success as they are reading content information?

  1. Selecting a passage on a topic new to the student to promote interest
  2. Mapping
  3. Class discussion during the reading
  4. Additions to Word Walls

Correct answer: 2. This is the correct answer. Helping students learn to map what they are reading often enhances their skills in organizing and understanding written text.

Question 9

The development of reading comprehension skills is important in elementary students. Which of the following is the least important strategy in promoting reading comprehension among elementary students?

  1. Initiate interest and build a schema before reading and provide an activity after reading
  2. Self-monitor during reading and respond after reading
  3. Develop questions and visualizations during reading
  4. Relate oral language to semantics

Correct answer: 4. Relating oral language to semantics has nothing to do with comprehension strategies.

Question 10

Mrs. Jones is a fourth-grade reading specialist and has been asked by a number of teachers how to enhance the comprehension skills of their students, especially with expository text. She explained that it can enhance students’ comprehension of this kind of text to have them focus on certain elements of expository text. Which one of the below elements is NOT a part of expository text?

  1. Headings and subheadings
  2. Graphs, charts, and pictures may be included
  3. Plot, setting, and characters
  4. Words in bold and/or with definitions may be integrated into the text

Correct answer: 3. These are some of the elements of narrative text.

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