This section tests your ability to teach English learners the language with attention to phonology and morphology. A knowledge of the unique facets of the English language, especially in regards to listening, speaking, reading, and writing, is needed to complete this section.
Let’s discuss some concepts that will more than likely appear on the test.
Phonology is the relationship between speech sounds and the foundational components of a language. Features of English phonology include phonemes, intonation patterns, pitch, and modulation.
Phonemes are particular units of sound in a language. An example of a phoneme in the English language is /d/, heard in words such as dog, bandit, and add.
Intonation is the rise and fall of the voice while speaking. Common intonation patterns in the English language are rising, falling, and fall-rise. For instance, asking a question is an example of a rising pattern, because the voice rises at the end.
Pitch refers to how high or low a spoken voice is perceived. Pitch relates to the stress put on particular words or syllables. In the English language, using a higher pitch often serves to emphasize words.
Modulation is the act of altering your voice to create a certain tone to fit your intended message. For example, you might put stress on certain words to indicate their importance.
Morphology is the study of words and how they are formed. A morpheme is a grammatical unit of a language that cannot be broken down any further. It can be either a word or part of a word that carries meaning. An example of a morpheme that cannot stand alone is “pre.” This is a prefix that means “before” when attached to a base word (prehistoric, preheat, preview, etc.).