This competency includes about 10 multiple-choice questions which make up about 12% of the entire exam.
This section tests your knowledge of students’ cognitive, social, and emotional development, as well as cultural characteristics of students.
Let’s talk about some concepts that you will more than likely see on the test.
Cognitive development includes all aspects of the thought process from childhood to adulthood. These processes include remembering, problem-solving, and decision-making.
The third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is the concrete operational stage. Children in this stage are around seven to eleven years old. At this point, children begin to develop organized and rational thinking. This stage is considered the major turning point in a child’s cognitive development because it is the beginning of logical thought. Children are mature enough to apply logical thinking to physical objects.
The next stage is the formal operational stage. This stage occurs when a child is around twelve years old and lasts through adulthood. At this point, children begin the ability to think abstractly. They can think creatively, do mathematical calculations, and imagine possible outcomes without using concrete manipulatives. If a child is in the concrete operational thinking stage, he or she will need to draw a picture or use objects to think things through. A child in the formal operational stage can do this in his or her head. Formal reasoning involves more sophisticated and advanced thinking. Students use skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning to come up with creative solutions to problems.
Social and Emotional Development
Social development is the process of children learning to interact with others around them. As they develop their own individuality, they begin to gain skills to communicate with other people. Emotional development is the ability to recognize, express, and manage feelings at different stages of life. This development includes both positive and negative emotions, largely impacted by their relationships with parents, siblings, and peers.
The social developmental stage of adolescence includes a child’s development of friendships and other relationships. Children hit milestones of social skill development along the way. Between the ages of three and four years, children’s sense of confidence begins to develop as they learn to do more activities without assistance. Between the ages of four and five, children start to gain a greater awareness of their own individuality. A child’s sense of self in these early stages can set a pattern for the rest of his or her life. Some red flags that might show a child has dysfunctional social development include showing no interest in playing with other children, wanting to be dependent on caregivers, and/or having extremely rigid routines.
The emotional developmental stage of adolescence includes a child’s ability to regulate emotions. During middle and late childhood, children begin to gain an understanding of their own emotions. Children begin to understand that multiple emotions can be felt during a single life event, allowing them to understand multiple aspects of a situation.
Language arts teachers can align instructional goals with their students’ social and emotional development through self-reflection writing. Allowing students to explore their own emotions through writing can help them better understand their reactions to situations. Teachers can allow students to look at characters’ emotions towards situations and relationships with others to help students understand their own emotions and relationships.
And that’s some basic info about Characteristics of Students.