CSET English Ultimate Guide2019-07-23T20:10:36+00:00

CSET English: Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

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CSET English

Quick Facts

Subtest I

  • Reading Literature and Informational Texts
    • Overview
  • Composition and Rhetoric
    • Overview

Subtest II

  • Language, Linguistics, and Literacy
    • Overview

Subtest III

  • Overview

Subtest IV

  • Communications: Speech, Media, and Creative Performance
    • Overview

Practice Questions and Answers

CSET English Quick Facts

The CSET English is a CBT only exam that is used to test the mastery of specific domains of prospective teachers in grades K-12. The exam consists of 4 subtests that can be taken in one session or individual sessions. If all subtests are taken in one session you have 6 hours to complete all 4 subtests. If taken individually, you have 90 minutes each for subtest I and IV, 1 hour for subtest II and 2 hours to complete subtest III. Subtests I and II consist of multiple-choice questions and subtests III and IV consist of constructed-response questions.

Cost: 

The exam fee is $297 if all subtests are taken together. If taken individually, subtest I is $72 and subtests II, III, and IV are $75 each.

 

Scoring: 

Scores are determined by the raw score of each section of multiple-choice and constructed-response questions and based on the weighting of each section. Scores are converted to a range of 100-300. 

 

Pass rate: 

The passing rate is determined by each subtest. An individual must score a minimum of 220 per subtest.

 

Study time: 

Make studying a habit in your day to day routine. Devote at least 30 minutes each day to studying. Take advantage of practice tests and use incorrect answers to guide your learning for the next day.  

 

What test takers wish they would’ve known: 

  • A better understanding of the format of the test
  • More specific information on authors and literature
  • Glossary terms for each domain

Information and screenshots obtained from CTC.

Subtest I

Reading Literature and Informational Texts

Overview

This domain consists of 40 multiple-choice questions within 6 competencies:

  • Reading Literature
  • Craft and Structure of Literature
  • Reading Informational Texts
  • Craft and Structure of Informational Texts
  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas in Informational Texts
  • Text Complexity

So, let’s talk about Reading Literature first.

Reading Literature

This section tests your knowledge of different literary traditions. 

Let’s talk about a concept that you will more than likely see on the test.

Features of Young Adult Literature

  • Point of view of a protagonist teenager (ex. The Outsiders)
  • Dialogue is usually blunt and can be confrontational (ex. Perks of Being a Wallflower)
  • Story development is usually over a short period of time (freshman year, summer vacation, spring break) 
  • Parents are usually absent or have conflicts with the young adults (ex. The Fault in Our Stars)
  • Endings are not always happy (ex. A Formal Feeling)
  • Coming of age issues (ex. Chocolate War)

Craft and Structure of Literature

This section tests your knowledge of the elements and organization of literature. 

Let’s talk about a concept that you will likely see on the test.

Basic Elements of Literature

  • Plot refers to the sequential events used to show development in a story. Stories sometimes progress through many different plots. Dramas are divided into acts and scenes. Playwrights use dialogue to develop their plots. 
  • Setting refers to when and where the story takes place. Settings can be smaller in scale, like a park or forest; or they can be large and encompassing, like an era or historical time period. The characters in the story can also describe the setting and give the reader an interpretation and view of where it is taking place.
  • Characters refer to who the story is about. They give readers something in which to invest. Characters can be people, animals, or creatures. 
  • Point of view refers to who is telling the story. The first person uses words like “I” and “me.” The narrator is part of the story. You only read the thoughts, feelings, and opinions of the person telling the story. The second person uses “you” and is rarely used in fiction. The third person uses words like “he”, “she”, and characters’ names. Third person point of view allows the expression of thoughts, feelings, and opinions of multiple characters. 
  • The theme refers to the big idea of the story. Examples of common themes include betrayal, loyalty, friendship, love, justice, and hypocrisy. 
  • Narrative structure refers to the content of the story and the structure that is used to tell the story. The common narrative structure has three parts. It starts with the exposition, or beginning leads into the rising action, climax, and falling action. It ends with the resolution or denouement. However, narratives may take other forms depending on the genre.
  • Figurative language refers to figures of speech in the literature that increase effectiveness and impactfulness of the author’s message. Common literary devices include similes, metaphors, personification, oxymorons, hyperbole, and idioms. 
  • Tone refers to the point of view or attitude the author takes in the story. Tone comes in many forms depending on the author’s feelings. It can be humorous, arrogant, solemn, joyful, sad.
  • Diction is word choice. It is an element of drama that advances the plot. Formal, informal, colloquial, and slang diction are used in different contexts and settings in literature. Writers use diction to set a specific mood, tone, or atmosphere for the reader.
  • Style refers to how the author chooses words and organization to tell a story. Four main types of writing styles are expository, descriptive, persuasive, and creative writing. 

Reading Informational Texts

This section tests your knowledge of the analysis of informational texts.

Let’s talk about a concept that you will likely see on the test.

Summaries of Informational Text

When writing an objective summary of an informational text, you should focus on the central idea and include the title and author of the text. You should provide the most important information and omit supporting or minor details. Do not include any opinions or personal feelings on the information. The information should not be copied but rewritten in your own words. It should not be written in the first person. 

Example of an Objective Summary:

Moose by Christy Mihaly provides important information of a moose’s development. The text explains what regions moose live in and how their bodies are made to adapt to their environments. It explains the changes of their antlers and how they use them to find a mate. The text begins with information on the beginning of a moose’s life and follows it throughout its lifecycle.

Craft and Structure of Informational Texts

This section tests your knowledge of the features and structure of informational texts.

Let’s look at a concept that is likely to pop up on the test.

Text Features

Authors use text features to help the reader navigate through the text easier. Examples include:

  • Graphics– visual ways to present information from the text to give the reader a better understanding of the information 
  • Headers– break the text into sections and make it easier to find information
  • Captions– words located directly above, beside, or below a picture that provide specific information
  • Table of Contents– outlines important parts of the text and guides the reader to find that information more easily by providing page numbers
  • Glossary– usually located in the back of the text and defines bolded words found in the text
  • Bold Print– used to show that something is important in the text and can be found in the glossary

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas in Informational Texts

This section tests your knowledge of using different media or formats to evaluate historical documents and use legal reasoning to defend an argument.

Here is a concept that is likely to be part of the test.

The Constitution of the United States

The purpose of the US Constitution is to create a government based on a checks and balances system that protects the rights of its citizens. The major themes of the US Constitution are limited government, checks and balances, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, federalism, and judicial review. The rhetorical features found in the US Constitution are repetition and parallelism.

Text Complexity

This section tests your understanding of the structure and language in a text to determine grade-level appropriateness.

Here is a concept you definitely need to know.

Qualitative Dimensions of Text Complexity

  • Levels of meaning can change the complexity of the text. If there is one meaning, like in an informational text, it is easier to understand. If there are hidden meanings, it can make the text more complex. 
  • Structure can change the complexity of the text. If the plot is in sequential order, it is easier to follow. If there are flashbacks or changes in time, the complexity of the text changes. It becomes harder to follow. 
  • Language conventionality and clarity refer to the examination of the language in the text. When there are words with multiple meanings, it makes the text more complex.
  • Background knowledge demands refer to the level of background knowledge the reader needs in order to understand the text.

Composition and Rhetoric

Overview

This domain consists of 10 multiple-choice questions within 5 competencies:

  • Writing Processes
  • Text Types and Purposes
  • Production and Distribution of Writing
  • Conventions of Oral and Written Language
  • Research to Build and Present Knowledge

So, let’s talk about Writing Processes first.

Writing Processes

This section tests your knowledge of the structure of the writing process.

Let’s talk about a concept that you will more than likely see on the test.

Revising

Revising is the stage in the writing process where the author revisits their writing to reread and change what they have written. Revising never stops and continues throughout the writing process. It can occur at any time in the writing process. Revising entails many aspects from changing the structure of the writing, rewording sentences, fixing grammatical errors, or even deleting entire paragraphs. 

Text Types and Purposes

This section tests your knowledge of the ability to recognize, apply, and demonstrate multiple types of text structures and their purpose of how they contribute to the text.

Here are some concepts you definitely need to know.

Non-Narrative Text Structures

In non-narrative text structures, the text might not be in chronological order but can be organized in a variety of ways. Text structures can be identified by certain signal words that are specific to each structure.

  • Problem/Solution has a problem that needs to be solved and lists one or more ways the problem can be solved. 
  • Cause and Effect tell the reader the result of an event and the reasons it happened.
  • Compare/Contrast texts look at the similarities and differences of two or more topics, events, objects, or ideas.
  • Description/List is set up like an outline used to elaborate on a specific topic or main idea.
  • Time Order/Sequence uses transitional words to structure the events or steps in order.

Production and Distribution of Writing

This section tests your knowledge of ways to use proper writing techniques to produce and share writing products.

Here is a concept that is likely to be part of the test.

Appositives

Appositives rename a noun by using a different noun or noun phrase to redefine it. The purpose of an appositive is to give the sentence more detail and elaborate on the noun being described. 

Examples:

My sister’s car, a white sedan, was stolen yesterday. 

The appositive is a white sedan and car is the noun it describes.

My mother Jill loves to cook.

The appositive is Jill and mother is the noun it describes.

Conventions of Oral and Written Language

This section tests your knowledge of how to use writing conventions and structures correctly in written english. 

Here is a concept you definitely need to know.

Parallel Structure

Parallel structure is where you repeat the same grammatical form within a sentence. It is sometimes referred to as parallelism. 

Example:

NOT parallel: 

My friend likes to go swimming, hike and take naps. 

Parallel:

My friend likes swimming, hiking and napping

           When the sentence uses parallel structure each verb stays in the same grammatical form of present tense.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

This section tests your knowledge of demonstrating, gathering, and interpreting research findings to integrate information into written text.  

Here are some concepts you definitely need to know.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and endnotes are used to cite or give attribution to someone else’s information used in the text. Footnotes are used for a short citation and are located at the bottom of the page it is citing. Endnotes are located at the end of a large section or at the end of the document. Endnotes do not take away from the text on the page and can contain more in-depth information due to their location. 

Subtest II

Language, Linguistics, and Literacy

Overview

This domain consists of 50 multiple-choice questions within 3 competencies:

  • Human Language Structures
  • Acquisition and Development of Language and Literacy
  • Grammatical Structures of English

So, let’s talk about Human Language Structures first.

Human Language Structures

This section tests your knowledge of the study of language, including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. 

Take a look at these concepts.

Morphology

Morphology is the study and analysis of word structures. Words can be broken down into components.

  • Inflection is the change of a word by adding a new ending to the base word. Examples: -s, ‘s, -est, -er, -ed, -ing
  • The derivation is the formation of creating a new word that is made up by adding a prefix or a suffix to the word. The new word is called a derivative. 
  • Compounding is taking two complete English base words and combining them to make a new word called a compound word.
  • Roots are the base words before anything is added to them. 
  • Affixes are the most common way to change the meaning or form of a word. A prefix is an affix that is added to the beginning of the word and a suffix is an affix that is added to the end of the word. 

Pragmatics

Pragmatics is the study of how words and symbols are used in a communicative context. 

  • Pragmalinguistics is the formal grammar aspect of understanding language in context. 
  • Sociopragmatics is the everyday social practices of language. 
  • Psycholinguistics is how children and non-native learners have to adapt and learn a language.

Acquisition and Development of Language and Literacy

This section tests your knowledge of how to explain, demonstrate, and apply knowledge of how language is acquired. 

Take a look at these concepts.

Decoding versus Encoding

Decoding is breaking down words to determine the chunks and individual sounds to be able to read. Decoding is finding patterns and rules in words to segment the word to help read it. Encoding is the opposite. It is blending individual sounds or chunks to build a word to be able to read. 

Examples:

Decoding: theme

th  e   m e

Breaking the word apart and coding it helps to show that th makes one sound, the vowel e says its long sound because of the silent e at the end of the VCe word. 

Encoding:

s + t + a r + t =  start 

Each letter or group of letters is individually built upon one another to create the word.

L2 Acquisition

The first language will always have an impact on the acquisition of a second language. Similarities in both languages will have a positive transfer and differences will have a negative transfer on L2 acquisition. For example, when there are similarities in sentence structure it makes a positive transfer because you are able to use L1 knowledge to help L2.

Grammatical Structures of English

This section tests your knowledge of the conventions, structures, and functions of the English language. 

Here are some concepts to review for the test.

Verb Complements

Verb complements give added information to the main verb. Verb complements can be noun phrases, adverbs, adjectives, or clauses.

Example:

They asked him to leave.

Leave is the verb complement to the main verb asked.

Count and Noncount Nouns

Count nouns are nouns that you can count. It is a count noun if you can make the noun plural or add a number in front of it.

Examples: books, candles, 20 cars, 12 shoes 

A noncount noun is a noun that you cannot count or make plural. 

Examples: work, air, milk, bread

Subtest III

Overview

This domain consists of 2 constructed-response questions: 1 based on literary text and 1 based on non-literary text. These questions require extended responses.

Subtest III covers the same domains and competencies as Subtest I. 

For more information on answering constructed-response questions, check out 240Tutoring’s guide to constructed-response questions.

Subtest IV

Communications: Speech, Media, and Creative Performance

Overview

This domain consists of 4 constructed-response questions within 3 competencies:

  • Non-Written Communication
  • Media Analysis and Applications
  • Dramatic Performance

These questions require short and focused responses.

For more information on answering constructed-response questions, check out 240Tutoring’s guide to constructed-response questions

So, let’s talk about Non-Written Communication first.

Non-Written Communication

This section tests your knowledge of communication and performance skills needed for presenting oral performances in a variety of forms. 

Here are some concepts to review for the test.

Performance Skills

  • Dictation is the action of reciting words aloud.
  • Clear enunciation is using the correct expression when pronouncing words where they can be heard and understood. 
  • Vocal rate is how fast or slow you speak. 
  • Range depends on how much the speaker needs to project to the audience. 
  • Pitch is measured by the frequency of sound waves and volume is how loud or soft sound is. 
  • Gestures are the movement of the body and posture is the position of the body. 
  • Appropriate eye contact should be used when talking to your audience. 
  • Response to the audience is ongoing. It cues you pick up from your audience’s reaction to your oral performance.

Media Analysis and Applications

This section tests your knowledge of being able to analyze and apply different forms of media. 

Take a look at this concept.

Impact of Advertising on Society

One of the positive aspects of advertising is the ability to educate people on events, items, or ideas that they did not know a lot about. Consumers are able to pick and choose what they are interested in and learn more about it. Advertising can also have negative effects on a person to make them feel as if they are not as adequate as someone else because they are not able to go to an event, buy a specific item, or understand an idea. It can also negatively influence children and teenagers by increasing alcohol or tobacco use and by encouraging unhealthy eating habits, sometimes leading to eating disorders. 

Dramatic Performance

This section tests your knowledge of describing, analyzing, applying and demonstrating strategies for productions and performances. 

Let’s take a look at these concepts that are more than likely to appear on the test.

Fundamentals of Stage Directing

  • Conceptualization is the idea or whole picture of what the performance will entail. 
  • Blocking is where all of the components come together in a scene.
  • The tempo is the pacing of the performance. 
  • Dramatic arc includes rising and falling actions. The rising action is the events that build up to the climax. The falling action is a conflict between the protagonist and the antagonist right before the end.

And that’s some basic info about the CSET English exam.

Practice Questions and Answers

Question 1

In Ancient Greece, how was the chorus used in plays?

  1. to describe and comment on the action of the play, directing the audience’s reaction to it
  2. to break the fourth wall by engaging with the audience directly and telling them about events in the play, creating dramatic irony
  3. to sing the musical scores that accompanied the plays, especially those performed at festivals celebrating Dionysus
  4. to rotate with the main characters between acts

Correct answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. The main function of the chorus was to comment and interpret the action of the play for the audience.
  2. The chorus would make more general comments and not engage with the audience on a personal level.
  3. The chorus did not sing.
  4. The chorus and the characters did not rotate out and swap roles.

Read the poem below; then answer the 2 questions that follow.

Glory of Women

Siegfried Sassoon

You love us when we’re heroes, home on leave,


Or wounded in a mentionable place.


You worship decorations; you believe


That chivalry redeems the war’s disgrace.


You make us shells. You listen with delight,


By tales of dirt and danger fondly thrilled.


You crown our distant ardours while we fight,


And mourn our laurelled memories when we’re killed.


You can’t believe that British troops “retire”


When hell’s last horror breaks them, and they run,


Trampling the terrible corpses—blind with blood.


O German mother dreaming by the fire,


While you are knitting socks to send your son


His face is trodden deeper in the mud.

Question 2

What type of poem is “Glory of Women”?

  1. villanelle
  2. epic
  3. sonnet
  4. haiku

Correct answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. Villanelles have 19 lines, this poem has 14.
  2. Although epic poems often describe the battle, this is not long enough.
  3. “Glory of Women” is a sonnet, with the turn of focus occurring before the sextet.
  4. This is not haiku.

Question 3

This poem focuses on primarily what major concern of war poets from WWI?

  1. the inescapable sense of worthlessness and isolation that WWI soldiers felt
  2. the difficulty many soldiers had trying to adapt to civilian life
  3. hero worship and the glorification of war
  4. the disparity between the reality of war and civilians’ perception of what war is like

Correct answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. A lot of war poets wrote about isolation, but this poem, in particular, looks at how women see war.
  2. This is not a poem set after the war but during it.
  3. The poet accuses women of doing just this, but he is maligning them for it.
  4. This poem describes the major divide between what war is really like and what those at home thought about it.

Question 4

Read the passage; then answer the question that follows.

Buildings have personalities. Some fascinate as beautiful women fascinate; some charm as a child may charm, naively, simply, but irresistible. Some, like conquerors, men of blood and iron, without bowels of mercy, pitiless and determined, strike awe to the soul, mingled with the almost gasping admiration that power wakes in man. Some bring a sense of heavenly peace to the heart. Some, like certain temples of the Greeks, by their immense dignity, speak to nature almost as the music speaks and change anxiety to trust. Some tug at the hidden chords of romance and rouse a trembling response. Some seem to be mingling their tears with the tears of the dead; some their laughter with the laughter of the living. 

Which of the following does the author not compare buildings to?

  1. beautiful women
  2. a child
  3. conquerors
  4. elderly people

Correct answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. The passage states, “some [buildings] fascinate as beautiful women fascinate.”
  2. The passage states, “some [buildings] charm as a child may charm.”
  3. The passage states, “some [buildings are like] conquerors.”
  4. The passage does not compare buildings to elderly people.

Question 5

Read the passage; then answer the question that follows.

The evidence of the witches makes it abundantly clear that the so-called Devil was a human being, generally a man, occasionally a woman. At the great Sabbaths, where he appeared in his grand array, he was disguised out of recognition; at the small meetings, in visiting his votaries, or when inducing a possible convert to join the ranks of the witch-society, he came in his own person, usually dressed plainly in the costume of the period. When in ordinary clothes he was indistinguishable from any other man of his own rank or age, but the evidence suggests that he made himself known by some manual gesture, by a password, or by some token carried on his person. The token seems to have been carried on the foot, and was perhaps a specially formed boot or shoe, or a foot-covering worn under the shoe.

The central purpose of this passage is to:

  1. describe how the Devil might look if he walked among humans, what he might wear, and if he has any detail that makes him identifiable. 
  2. malign practitioners of magic and those who seek the path of evil.
  3. explore why this particular supernatural entity would want to appear like other humans. 
  4. accuse those thought to be consorts with the Devil and expose them for who they really are.

Correct answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. This passage is a detailed description of how the Devil might appear if he were human.
  2. This passage’s purpose is not to malign those who align themselves with the Devil.
  3. This passage is not exploratory, but descriptive.
  4. The tone in this passage is even and non-accusatory.

Question 6

Read the scene; then answer the question that follows.

MacBeth

William Shakespeare

ACT I

SCENE I. A desert place.

Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches.

First Witch

When shall we three meet again

In thunder, lightning, or in rain?

Second Witch

When the hurlyburly’s done,

When the battle’s lost and won.

Third Witch

That will be ere the set of sun.

First Witch

Where the place?

Second Witch

Upon the heath.

Third Witch

There to meet with Macbeth.

First Witch

I come, Graymalkin!

Second Witch

Paddock calls.

Third Witch

Anon.

ALL

Fair is foul, and foul is fair:

Hover through the fog and filthy air.

Exeunt

What themes are set up in this first scene of Macbeth?

  1. prophecy and ambition
  2. supernatural and double meanings
  3. murder and betrayal
  4. battle and shifting politics

Correct answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. These themes are apparent in the play, but they are not illustrated in this scene.
  2. This first scene with the witches sets up a supernatural theme, and the way they speak shows that some lines have multiple meanings.
  3. These themes appear largely in the play but are not yet established.
  4. These are elements of the play, but this scene does not explicitly set these up.

Question 7

One significant feature of Shakespearean tragic heroes is that each of them:

  1. must die.
  2. will overcome his or her hardships.
  3. will never know what the future holds.
  4. has a tragic flaw. 

Correct answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. Not all tragic heroes die at the end of the play.
  2. The hero’s downfall is an innate trait, so the hero does overcome hardship.
  3. This is incorrect.
  4. Every Shakespearean tragic hero has a tragic flaw.

Question 8

What is Lady Macbeth’s fatal flaw?

  1. compassion
  2. overreaching ambition
  3. femininity
  4. integrity

Correct answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. Lady Macbeth does not have compassion for any of the other characters.
  2. Lady Macbeth is too ambitious in this play, causing her own downfall.
  3. This is not correct as displayed in the text when she states, “unsex me here”.
  4. She is a liar and a murderer and does not have integrity.

Read the passage; then answer the 6 questions that follow.

(1) Those at home in England, with their experience of war books and photographs, of Zeppelin raids and crowded hospitals, are beginning to imagine they know all there is to know about war. The truth is that they still have but little idea of the life in the trenches, and, as far as mud is concerned, they are delightfully ignorant. They do not know what mud is.

(2) They have read of Napoleon’s “Fourth Element,” they have listened to long descriptions of mud in Flanders and France, they have raised incredulous eyebrows at tales of men being drowned in the trenches, they have given a fleeting thought of pity for the soldiers “out there” as they have slashed home through the streets on rainy nights; but they have never realized what mud means, for no photograph can tell its slimy depth, and even the pen of a Zola or a Victor Hugo could give no adequate idea of it.

(3) It is the infantryman who suffers most, for he has to live, eat, sleep, and work in the mud. The plain of dragging slime that stretches from Switzerland to the sea is far worse to face than the fire of machine guns or the great black trench-mortar bombs that come twisting down through the air. It is more terrible than the frost and the rain—you cannot even stamp your feet to drive away from the insidious chill that mud always brings. Nothing can keep it from your hands and face and clothes; there is no taking off your boots to dry in the trenches—you must lie down just as you are, and often you are lucky if you have two empty sandbags under you to save you from the cold embrace of the swamp.

Question 9

While making a point that those who had never served in WWI could not truly know the horrors of the front, the author assumes that:

 

  1. readers have a solid grasp of the conditions of trenches and mud on the front.
  2. readers know the major generals of the war.
  3. readers have handled weapons before and can identify the different kinds.
  4. readers understand the parameters of the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended the war.

 

Correct Answer: 1

 

Explanations:

 

  1. The author makes references to the trenches without explaining them, so the assumption is that the readers know what trenches are. 
  2. The author does not name specific generals in the war.
  3. The author does not mention weapons, except in passing in the third paragraph.
  4. The author does not mention the Treaty of Versailles at all.

Question 10

What attitude does the author hold towards “[t]hose at home in England”?

  1. The author thinks those at home are too sympathetic towards the soldiers at the front.
  2. The author thinks those at home are too harsh in their judgment of conditions on the front.
  3. The author thinks those at home will never have any idea how terrible conditions are at the front, as they have never experienced it firsthand.
  4. The author thinks those at home are right and that the war should end as soon as possible.

 

Correct Answer: 3

 

Explanations:

 

  1. The author does not believe those at home are too sympathetic. 
  2. The author explains that, although those at home may judge conditions at the front, they will never know what it’s really like.
  3. The author’s attitude shows that he does not think those at home know what it is like to be at the front. One example of this is when he says “The truth is that they still have but little idea of the life in the trenches.”
  4. Although this may be the opinion of both the author and “those at home,” this passage does not specifically discuss the end of the war.

Question 11

What is the organization of the paragraphs in this passage?

  1. The first paragraph describes what “those at home” think they know about conditions at the front, the second describes how they learned about the conditions, and the third describes how horrible the conditions actually are.
  2. The first paragraph describes the way the soldiers got to the front, the second describes the uses of the different weapons, and the third describes the effects of the different weapons on infantry.
  3. The first paragraph describes “those at home” and the homes they live in, the second describes the uses of the different weapons, and the third describes the effects of the different weapons on infantry.
  4. The first paragraph describes what resources “those at home” are reading, the second describes the feelings of the soldiers on the front, and the third describes the assumptions of “those at home.”

 

Correct Answer: 1

 

Explanations:

 

  1. This is the correct organization for this passage.
  2. This is not correct, as the passage does not describe weapons or their effects in detail.
  3. This is not correct, as the passage does not describe weapons or their effects in detail.
  4. This is not the organization of the passage.

Question 12

What is the impact of the POV shift from the third person to second person in the third paragraph of this passage?

  1. It alienates the reader because it makes the reader understand how little they know about the conditions at the front.
  2. It draws the reader closer to the soldiers’ experiences because it directly addresses the reader as “you” and puts the reader into the mud.
  3. It creates sympathy in the reader because it enforces the feeling of fatality that hangs over all the soldiers.
  4. It makes the reader lose interest in the off-putting account.

 

Correct Answer: 2

 

Explanations:

 

  1. Shifting from the third person POV into the second person does not alienate the reader, but draws them further into the narrative. 
  2. By directly addressing the reader, the author puts the reader into the scene and makes the experience more vivid.
  3. This passage does create sympathy, but it does not mention the sense of fatality.
  4. The shift in POV draws the reader in close because it puts them directly in the scene; it does not push them further away.

Question 13

Which persuasive technique is used in the passage?

  1. pathos
  2. personal anecdote
  3. ethos
  4. rhetorical questions

 

Correct Answer: 1

 

Explanations:

 

  1. The passage uses pathos because the description of horrible conditions makes the readers feel sympathy.
  2. The passage does not relate any stories about the author personally.
  3. The author does not state whether or not he was a soldier, so we are unable to judge the credibility of his stance.
  4. The author does not pose rhetorical questions in this passage.

Question 14

The author’s claim that “those at home” will never know the reality of the war is:

  1. invalid because it is one person’s opinion and not backed up by facts.
  2. valid because the author uses statistics to back up his claim.
  3. invalid because the evidence the author provides is contradictory.
  4. valid because the author is a soldier himself and interviewed many soldiers, as well as civilians, at home.

 

Correct Answer: 1

 

Explanations:

 

  1. The claim is the author’s opinion and not based in fact. 
  2. The author does not provide statistics for his claim.
  3. The author does not provide contradictory evidence, just his own opinion.
  4. The claim is not backed up by personal interviews from both sides.

Question 15

A draft research paper includes a passage quoted directly from a source. The writer does not need to use the whole sentence as evidence, and so she takes out a portion of the sentence. Which of the following is used to indicate that there is purposefully missing material in the text? 

  1. using an ellipsis to show that material has been removed
  2. adding the deleted material to a footnote
  3. using a dash to indicate that there is missing material
  4. identifying the missing material in an endnote

Correct answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. To indicate to the audience that there is material that was taken out for clarity of argument, the author would use an ellipsis.
  2. Footnotes are used to clarify and expand on certain points, not to indicate missing words.
  3. A dash works like parentheses in that it indicates a pause and the information after it clarifies previous points.
  4. Endnotes are used to clarify information or sources, not to indicate missing material.

Question 16

After a recent interview at a prestigious company, the job applicant writes her interviewer a thank-you email. Which of the following matches the tone and content of such a letter?

  1. To Whom it May Concern,
    I want to extend a feeling of appreciation for the attention I received in my recent interview process with your esteemed company. I expect to be hearing from you as soon as possible. Cheers, ___________.
  2. Hey there. I had a blast interviewing for that position at your company. I hope I get the job. Fingers crossed, __________________
  3. Good afternoon,
    Thank you for taking the time to interview me for the editorial assistant position. As you can tell from speaking with you, I am the ideal candidate for this position. I’m looking forward to getting a call-back.
  4. Dear ________,
    Thank you for the recent opportunity to interview at _________ Company. I enjoyed learning more about your company and look forward to hearing back from you about the assistant editor position. Sincerely, _____________

Correct answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. This thank you note is too wordy and arrogant and doesn’t have any specifics.
  2. This choice is too casual.
  3. This response is overly confident and may offend the potential employer.
  4. Short and to the point, this thank you note addresses the interviewer by name and lists the specifics of the company and position without being too long-winded.

Question 17

Which is an example of a compound-complex sentence?

  1. one independent clause and one dependent clause
  2. one independent clause and two dependent clauses
  3. at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause
  4. at least three independent clauses and only one dependent one

Correct answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. This is incorrect.
  2. This is incorrect.
  3. This is correct; two independent clauses is a compound sentence, and a dependent clause makes it a compound-complex sentence.
  4. This is incorrect.

Question 18

What was the effect of the Great Vowel Shift in Europe?

  1. Regional accents became more noticeable.
  2. The way certain vowel sounds were written no longer corresponded with how they sounded.
  3. The English and French vowel sounds were no longer consistent with one another.
  4. Vowel sounds in the British Isles no longer correlated with mainland Britain.

Correct answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. This is incorrect.
  2. This is the correct answer as the vowel shift changed the way certain vowels sounded, altering the way the word was pronounced.
  3. This is incorrect.
  4. This is incorrect.

Question 19

What is the best definition of polysemy?

  1. The coexistence for many possible meanings for a word or phrase.
  2. A word whose meaning has changed over time.
  3. A pair of words that sound alike but have vastly different meanings.
  4. The assignment of certain properties to various words.

Correct answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. This is the correct answer; examples include sister or mole.
  2. This is incorrect.
  3. This is incorrect.
  4. This is incorrect.

Question 20

What is the correct definition of a morpheme?

  1. the combination of two units of language to make a word
  2. the largest understandable unit of language
  3. it is a shortened word made from a longer word
  4. the smallest meaningful unit of language

Correct answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. This is incorrect.
  2. This is incorrect.
  3. This is incorrect; this is back-formation.
  4. This is the correct response.

Question 21

The nonstandard use of a word, phrase, or saying, usually in response to a perceived overuse of a grammatical rule, is called:

  1. hypercorrection.
  2. back-formation.
  3. creolization.
  4. hypocritical.

Correct answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. This is the correct definition of the word hypercorrection.
  2. This is incorrect; this is the creation of a new shortened word.
  3. This is incorrect.
  4. This is incorrect; hypocritical means behaving as if one has higher or more noble standards.

Question 22

Which of the following words has an overt inflectional ending?

  1. ecstatic
  2. poppy
  3. responds
  4. miscellaneous

Correct answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. This word does not have an overt inflectional ending.
  2. This word does not have an overt inflectional ending.
  3. An overt inflectional ending is when you add an s to a word to make it third person present tense.
  4. This word does not have an overt inflectional ending.

Question 23

In which of these sentences is the word reflect a synonym of ponder?

  1. If he parked there, the sun would reflect off the windshield, making it hard to see in.
  2. A child’s bad behavior should not reflect on the parenting ability of his caregiver.
  3. A school’s motto should reflect its ethos.
  4. She needed some time to reflect, so she left the party early.

Correct answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. This is reflect as a synonym for return or bounce back.
  2. This is reflect as a synonym for cast back.
  3. This is reflect as a synonym for mirror.
  4. This is correct.

Question 24

Read the excerpt below; then answer the question that follows.

Danny: (entering a room) It’s so hot out there! I bet you could fry an egg on the sidewalk!

Helen: (seated) Tell me about it, there’s hardly any breeze.

Danny: Why don’t you turn on the fan?

Helen: And this sun! It’s so strong I can hardly read my book.

Danny:_____________________________

Given the context, which of the following choices will be the next likely line of dialogue.

  1. Climate change is no laughing matter.
  2. Here’s a sweater.
  3. Why don’t you pull down the shades?
  4. Have you had your eyes checked?

Correct answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. This is not as apt a fit for the conversation.
  2. This is the wrong response to someone who is too hot.
  3. Given the conversation tone and sentence structure, this would be the most likely next line of dialogue.
  4. This does not fit the line of reasoning in this passage.

Question 25

What is jargon?

  1. shorthand language
  2. specialized language for certain groups or professions
  3. changes in language reflective of the passing of time
  4. changes in language reflective of the change in culture

Correct answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. This is slang (shortened language).
  2. Jargon is a specialized language particular to certain jobs or groups.
  3. This is incorrect.
  4. This is incorrect.

Question 26

The theory of universal grammar applies most to which of the following?

  1. adults
  2. linguists
  3. children
  4. sociologists

Correct answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. This is incorrect as the theory involves children’s learning.
  2. This is incorrect.
  3. Chomsky’s rule of universal grammar deals with how quickly children pick up basic rules of grammar. 
  4. This is incorrect.

Read the passage below; then answer the 4 questions that follow.

(1) Whenever travellers penetrate into remote regions where human hunters are unknown, they find the wild things half tame, little afraid of man, and inclined to stare curiously from a distance of a few paces. It takes a long time and much restraint to win back their confidence. This is ideal, a paradise for the naturalist and the camera hunter.

(2) In the early days of the West, when game abounded and when fifty yards was the extreme deadly range of the hunter’s weapons, wild creatures were comparatively tame. The advent of the rifle and of the lawless skin hunter soon turned all big game into fugitives of excessive shyness and wariness. One glimpse of a man half a mile off, or a whiff of him on the breeze, was enough to make a Mountain Ram or a Wolf run for miles, though formerly these creatures would have gazed serenely from a point but a hundred yards removed.

(3) The establishment of the Yellowstone Park in 1872 was the beginning of a new era of protection for wildlife; and, by slow degrees, a different attitude in these animals toward us. In this Reservation, and nowhere else at present in the northwest, the wild things are not only abundant, but they have resumed their traditional Garden-of-Eden attitude toward man.

Question 27

Which of the following statements best expresses the central idea of the passage?

  1. Animals learn to fear men, but fear can be reversed over time. 
  2. Yellowstone National Park should be a model for other parks. 
  3. Hunting is bad for animal populations. 
  4. It is better to have tame animals. 

 

Correct Answer:  1

 

Explanations:

 

  1. All paragraphs in the passage relate to this idea. Animals were not afraid of men until they became more of a threat with the advent of the rifle. Then, when protected from hunting in Yellowstone, the animals eventually became more comfortable with the presence of men. 
  2. While the passage does describe the success of Yellowstone National Park in protecting its animals, looking at it as a model for other national parks is not suggested and is not the central idea of the passage.
  3. The author does not make any assertions regarding the effect of hunting on animal populations except for how it impacts their comfort with humans. 
  4. The author suggests that it is preferable to him for animals to not be afraid of humans, but the main idea is more focused on why animals behave the way they do.

Question 28

Which of the following statements is an example of an assumption?

 

  1. Animals came to associate danger with the smell and sounds of humans.
  2. If other locations provided protections for animals like those at Yellowstone, they would also see animals return to being more comfortable around humans. 
  3. Hunting is prohibited inside of Yellowstone National Park.
  4. Rifles allowed for accuracy at significantly farther than 50 yards.

 

Correct Answer:  2

 

Explanations:

 

  1. This is an example of a conclusion, not an assumption.
  2. Since Yellowstone is referenced as being the first of its kind and responsible for the change in animal behaviour, we can assume that other locations would have the same results if they followed the same rules as those that are imposed on visitors to Yellowstone.
  3. This is an example of an inference, not an assumption.
  4. This is an example of an inference, not an assumption.

Question 29

Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the passage?

  1. Other national parks were created to recreate the success of Yellowstone.
  2. Yellowstone National Park was established for the main purpose of protecting animals.
  3. Without the protections offered by the national park, it would be much more difficult to photograph the animals native to that area.
  4. Hunting is no longer considered an acceptable activity by most people. 

 

Correct Answer:  3

 

Explanations:

  1. While the audience may know that many more national parks have been created, there is nothing in the excerpt to lead you to conclude that this occurs, or that it will occur specifically due to the success of Yellowstone. 
  2. While the passage does discuss the improved conditions for animals, it does not provide evidence to suggest that animals were the number one focus when creating the park.
  3. The first paragraph mentions the struggle of the naturalist and camera hunter when animals are fearful of humans. It is reasonable to conclude that with less fear, these naturalists and camera hunters would have easier access to their animal subjects. 
  4. This passage does not suggest any judgement on hunting in general. It is only describing its impact on those trying to observe animals in their natural habitat.

Question 30

What is the relationship between these two sentences from the passage? 

Sentence 1: The advent of the rifle and of the lawless skin hunter soon turned all big game into fugitives of excessive shyness and wariness.

Sentence 2: One glimpse of a man half a mile off, or a whiff of him on the breeze, was enough to make a Mountain Ram or a Wolf run for miles, though formerly these creatures would have gazed serenely from a point but a hundred yards removed.

  1. Sentence 2 provides examples to support the claim in sentence 1.
  2. Sentence 2 describes a contrast with sentence 1.
  3. Sentence 2 contradicts the point made in sentence 1.
  4. Sentence 1 explains the effect, while sentence 2 provides the cause.

 

Correct Answer:  1

 

Explanations:

 

  1. Sentence 1 claims that rifles changed how animals reacted to humans. Sentence 2 provides examples of the change. 
  2. Sentence 1 and 2 do not contrast with each other, but do contrast with the description of nature before the introduction of the rifle in other parts of the passage. 
  3. Sentence 2 does not contradict sentence 1.
  4. Sentence 1 contains a cause and effect. Sentence 2 lists examples of the effect. 
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