TExES ESL Supplemental Ultimate Guide2019-04-21T04:07:09+00:00

TExES ESL Supplemental: Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the TExES ESL Supplemental exam?


You’ve found the right page. We will answer every question you have and tell you exactly what you need to study to pass the ESL Supplemental exam using our TExES ESL Supplemental study guide and practice test.

TExES ESL Supplemental

Quick Facts

Domain I: Language Concepts and Language Acquisition

Domain II: ESL Instruction and Assessment

Domain III: Foundations of ESL Education, Cultural Awareness and Family and Community Involvement

TExES ESL Supplemental Quick Facts

The TExES ESL Supplemental tests the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively instruct English Language Learners in the classroom.





The score range is 100 to 300; in other words, the best score you can get is a 300, while the lowest score is a 100. A score of 240 is needed to pass.

Study time:

Allow plenty of time to familiarize yourself with the test format and assure that you feel confident about the content covered in each different competency. While the specific amount of needed study time will vary from test-taker to test-taker, you should allow yourself several weeks to prepare so you do not feel overwhelmed or rushed. Our TExES ESL Supplemental practice test can help.

What test takers wish they would’ve known:

  • Review all test taking policies well in advance of arriving to the testing center
  • Assure you’ve brought needed materials, including required identification
  • Research routes and traffic patterns and allow yourself plenty of time to travel to the testing center
  • Dress in layers
  • Find your confidence and take the test with a positive attitude!

Information and screenshots obtained from the National Evaluation Series website: http://www.tx.nesinc.com/TestView.aspx?f=HTML_FRAG/TX154_PrepMaterials.html

Domain I: Language Concepts and Language Acquisition


Domain I accounts for about 25% of the entire exam.

This domain has two competencies:

  • Fundamental Language Concepts and Structure/Conventions
  • L1 and L2 Acquisition


So, let’s start with Fundamental Language Concepts and Structure/Conventions.

Fundamental Language Concepts and Structure/Conventions

This competency tests your knowledge of the foundational concepts of language and its functions in regard to listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Let’s take a look at some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.


Phonology is a division of linguistics focused on the system of sounds in a language. It is the study of how speech sounds are cognitively organized and used meaningfully through speech.


A lexicon is a vocabulary set specific to a person, language, or subject. It is the knowledge a speaker has about words and phrases in a language, including meaning, usage, relationships, and categorical organization.

Language Registers

A language register is the degree of formality with which one speaks. People speak in a formal register in academic and professional situations. For example, in job interviews, people use the standard conventions of their language when speaking. People speak in an informal register in social and family situations.
For example, at gatherings with close friends, people typically speak more casually with less adherence to the standard conventions of their language.

Word Formation

Word formation is the production of new words.

  • Compounding makes a word out of two or more morphemes. The result is a compound word. Examples:

rainbow, football, mailbox, something, butterfly

  • Blending is joining parts of two or more words to make a new word. The meaning is usually a combination of the words that were blended together. Examples:

brunch, motel, smog, skort, carjacking

  • Derivation is the creation of a new word from another word, typically by a base word with an affix. Examples:

helpful, quickly, speaker, national, happiness

  • An acronym is a word made by pronouncing the initials of a phrase as its own word. Examples:

PIN- personal identification number

AWOL- absent without leave

  • A calque is an expression that becomes part of a language by translating it word-by-word from another language. Examples:

“point of view” in English translates from “point de vue” in French

“beer garden” in English translates from “biergarten” in German

  • A neologism is a newly used word or phrase that is not yet formally accepted into a language. Neologisms often reflect current cultural trends. Examples:

staycation, chillax, crowdsourcing

  • Back-formation is the creation of a new word by removing an affix. Examples:

edit from original word editor, beg from original word beggar, donate from original word donation

L1 and L2 Acquisition

This competency tests your knowledge of how individuals acquire a first and second language and how to use this knowledge to effectively teach ESL students.

Here are some concepts that may appear on the test.

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive processes are ways in which individuals mentally process information. Cognitive processes include memorization, categorization, generalization, and metacognition.

  • Memorization is the process of committing information to memory to the point it is easily recalled. For example, students who have the vowels of the alphabet memorized can recite them with automaticity.
  • Categorization is the series of steps taken to identify, differentiate, and classify objects and ideas. For example, sorting words by part of speech, such as nouns and adjectives, requires these categorization skills.
  • Generalization is the transfer of knowledge or skill from one context to another. For example, one of the purposes of teaching students grammar skills in isolation is so they generalize these skills into their own writing.
  • Metacognition is the process of thinking about your thinking. For example, many high-level reading comprehension skills, such as inferring, require readers to understand the mental process they went through to draw their conclusion.

Idiomatic Expressions

An idiomatic expression is an expression in which the figurative meaning differs from the literal meaning. An example is, “Hold your horses!” This idiomatic expression means to be patient, not to actually put horses in your hand. Teachers can help ESL students overcome this common difficulty by teaching them directly, with visual aids and in context as much as possible. Teachers can facilitate role-play scenarios in which students practice using them in informal conversation.

And that’s some basic info about Domain I.

Domain II: ESL Instruction and Assessment


Domain II accounts for about 45% of the entire exam.

        This domain has five competencies:

  • Planning and Implementing Instruction
  • Communicative Language Development
  • Literacy Development
  • Content-Area Learning and Academic Language Development
  • Assessment


So, let’s start with Planning and Implementing Instruction.

Planning and Implementing Instruction

This competency tests your knowledge of effectively planning and implementing instruction based on the TEKS and ELPS to meet the needs of ESL learners.

Let’s talk about some concepts that may pop up on the test.

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)

The TEKS are the learning objectives and standards that educators in Texas’ public schools are required to teach throughout the school year. They are broken down by grade level and content area. The English Language Arts and Reading TEKS include listening, speaking, reading, and writing standards. Use the TEKS as the starting point of lesson design. You must know the learning goal and objective to be able to work backwards to plan the rest of the lesson cycle, including initial engagement, guided practice, independent practice, assessment, and needed resources and materials.

English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)

The ELPS are second-language acquisition standards used to guide instruction (in addition to the TEKS) for English Language Learners. They support ELLs in acquiring the English language skills necessary for meaningful learning across all subject areas. Teachers should use the ELPS along with the TEKS to plan lessons in the areas of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Content-Based ESL Instruction

Content-based ESL instruction is centered around the content students will acquire instead of direct language instruction. Students learn language through learning other academic content as opposed to the other way around. For content-based ESL instruction to be effective, the teacher must be very knowledgeable in the content area as well as prepared to assist students with language skills. Appropriate materials and resources must be selected for students with limited English proficiency.

Communicative Language Development

This competency tests your knowledge of developing ESL students’ oral language skills.

Here are some concepts that may appear on the test.

Oral Language Proficiency

Oral language proficiency is the ability to verbally communicate and understand verbal communication. There are different goals of high oral proficiency.

Being comfortable speaking in any situation means oral language is effectively used in a variety of settings to a variety of people. Speakers are comfortable delivering an oral report to an audience or a teacher and classmates, as well as conversing at a party.

Listening and understanding the message of most speakers means oral communication is generally received and comprehended. Listeners should understand what their teachers are saying, as well as a server at a restaurant.

Generally speaking with accurate grammar means appropriate subject-verb agreement, verb tense, etc. are typically used. Teachers can help ELLs achieve high oral proficiency by conversing with them frequently and in a variety of contexts. Teachers can model appropriate grammar in their own speech and repeat what ELL students say correctly back to them if a grammar misstep occurs.

Ways to Adjust Instructional Delivery for ELLs

Teachers can use different strategies to adjust instructional delivery for ELLs. They can slow down the rate in which instruction is delivered. Teachers should check for understanding before moving on, especially when vocabulary words that could be unfamiliar are used. Teachers can also use visual supports in their lessons by showing pictures that correspond to the content. Providing pictures to support language is an effective strategy for ELLs. Teachers can also use gestures to clarify certain actions mentioned in their instruction. Gestures and facial expressions are often universal and can be understood across languages.

Creating a Rich Language Environment

Teachers can create rich language environments by meaningfully exposing students to interactive language experiences routinely. Teachers can read aloud daily using engaging, high-quality literature and maintain a classroom library to meet the needs and interests of a variety of learners. They can also post word walls and anchor charts on the wall for students to use as spelling and vocabulary resources. Teachers can also facilitate games that encourage language development and word play, such as games based on rhyming, the alphabet, or word categories. Teachers can also encourage class discussions and engage in conversation with students.

Literacy Development

This competency tests your knowledge of promoting literacy development for ESL students with attention to strategies specific to English language acquisition and factors unique to second language learners.

Let’s talk about some concepts that may pop up on the test.

Common English Phonograms

A phonogram is a letter or combination of letters that produce a certain sound. All consonants have their own sound (sometimes more than one like c, g, s, x, and y) and vowels have a long sound (sounds like the letter name) and a short sound.

Combination phonograms can make consonant sounds. Examples:

sh, th, ch, wh, ph, wr, kn, gn, qu, ck, dge

Combination phonograms may be a combination of consonants and vowels. Examples:

er, ir, or, ur, ar, ed, augh, ough

Combination phonograms can make vowel sounds. Examples:

ai, ay, au, aw, igh, ie, ew, ee, ea, oa, oe, oi, oy, ow, ui

Helping ESL students understand that there are more sounds in the English language than the 26 letters that comprise the alphabet can aid in developing their knowledge of phonograms. Students should be directly taught the phonograms and provided with lots of examples of seeing them in written text.

Phonetically Irregular Words

Phonetically irregular words are words that do not follow the standard rules of sound-letter association. Examples:

two, sure, busy, door, done, answer, people, beautiful

Phonetically irregular words should be introduced in a logical order (starting with words students will see frequently) and reviewed in a cumulative way. Teachers should preview text to be used in instruction for phonetically irregular words and pre-teach them to prepare students for success in recognizing them in context.

High-Frequency Words

High-frequency words are words that appear often in written language. They may or may not follow standard rules of sound-letter association. Examples:

the, was, of, to, see, can, like, not, he, she, we, were, they

Since some of these words can be decoded and some cannot, students should be taught to know them by sight. ESL students should be exposed to them in a variety of ways. High-frequency word walls and lists for students to use as a resource can be provided, as well as the words written on flashcards for automaticity practice. Teachers should make sure to point them out during read alouds and in shared text.

Text Structures

Text structure refers to how information is organized within a text. Examples include:

  • cause and effect
  • problem and solution
  • chronological order
  • compare and contrast
  • opinion with support

Readers must understand how an author organized a writing piece to comprehend and make meaning of it. Strategies to use to develop ESL students’ comprehension include predicting, summarizing, and discussing. Teachers can think aloud to model metacognition about the author’s purpose of writing the text and how the text structure lent itself to this purpose.

L1 Literacy

Students’ literacy skills in their first language must be taken into account for designing and implementing literacy instruction in their second language. Students who have literacy deficits in L1 may have more difficulty acquiring literacy skills in L2. Care and attention must be taken to fill in any gaps necessary to move forward in literacy development.

Content-Area Learning and Academic Language Development

This competency tests your knowledge of strategies that promote academic achievement for ESL students across the content areas.

Here are some concepts that may appear on the test.

Front-Loading Vocabulary

Front-loading vocabulary means to pre-teach words and meanings that are key to certain concepts before teaching the concept itself. This is important for ESL instruction because it provides opportunity for students to comprehend meaning of a new vocabulary word before being expected to understand it in the context of the new academic concept. For example, before studying the life cycle of a chicken in science class, an ESL teacher can front-load vocabulary words such as “chick,” “adult,” “hatch,” and “egg” to prepare students to learn about the phases of the life cycle.


Realia is the use of real objects in the classroom for instructional purposes. For example, when teaching ESL students common kitchen items vocabulary, a teacher may bring actual dishes and utensils into the classroom instead of just showing pictures of them. Realia is important in ESL instruction so ESL students learn vocabulary in a hands-on, authentic way.

Graphic Organizers

Graphic organizers are visual ways to represent information. They are important to use for ESL instruction because visual representations provide opportunity for ELLs to comprehend the content while they are in the process of learning key vocabulary.


This competency tests your knowledge of using assessment to monitor and adjust instructional practices to best promote academic achievement for ESL students.

Let’s talk about some concepts that may pop up on the test.

Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC)

An LPAC is a school committee with the shared responsibility of making decisions to support an ESL student’s educational future through review of the progress made throughout the school year. LPACs are generally comprised of a campus administrator, ESL teacher, and parent of the student. LPACs make decisions about ESL students’ participation in assessments such as STAAR, ratings in the TELPAS domains, and need for continuation in different programs or services.

Informal Assessments

Informal assessments monitor the ongoing progress of students throughout the school year. They allow teachers to track students’ learning regularly so appropriate adjustments can be made to instruction. Teachers can use informal assessments such as story retelling, role play, class discussion, and participation in games and group activities to assess ELLs.

Diagnostic Assessments

Diagnostic assessments pre-assess students’ skills and knowledge in a particular area before instruction begins. They are used to analyze strengths and weaknesses to guide lesson design and instruction.

Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS)

TELPAS is an assessment system used to monitor the progress of students learning the English language. ELLs are rated annually until the LPAC determines the student has met exit criteria by demonstrating proficiency in the English language.

TELPAS raters holistically rate kindergarten and first grade students in the areas of listening, speaking, reading and writing through observation. Students in grades 2-12 take multiple-choice reading tests, listening and speaking tests, and submit writing samples. Each of the areas of speaking, listening, reading, and writing are reported as beginning, intermediate, advanced, and advanced high based on PLDs (proficiency level descriptors).

And that’s some basic info about Domain II.

Domain III: Foundations of ESL Education, Cultural Awareness and Family and Community Involvement


Domain III accounts for about 30% of the entire exam.

This domain has three competencies:

  • Foundations of ESL Education and ESL Programs
  • Cultural Awareness
  • Family and Community Involvement


So, let’s start with Foundations of ESL Education and ESL Programs.

Foundations of ESL Education and ESL Programs

This competency tests your knowledge of the foundations of ESL education, types of ESL programs, and how to use this knowledge to make the best instructional decisions for ESL students.

Let’s talk about some concepts that may pop up on the test.

Chapter 89.BB Special Populations

The state commissioner’s rules concerning the state’s plan for the education of English Language Learners are found in this state code. This code assures that ELLs are to be afforded the opportunity to master the TEKS as they are educated by appropriately qualified teachers in a bilingual or ESL program in which they qualify.


Immersion is the teaching of English through content as opposed to direct ESL instruction. Its goal is to immerse students in the English language so they acquire it quickly and authentically.

Lau v. Nichols in 1974

This court case is relevant to ESL instruction, because it determined that denying students with limited English language proficiency access to supplemental language instruction violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The decision was followed by the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974 which mandated school districts to provide equal opportunities for all students. Funding was increased for bilingual education, and additional English instruction for LEP students became required in all school districts.

Cultural Awareness


Acculturation is a process an individual or group goes through when adopting parts of a new culture while maintaining some elements of the original culture. For example, a family that immigrated from Mexico to the United States may participate in the American tradition of trick-or-treating on Halloween while also celebrating the Day of the Dead in the traditional Mexican way.


Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s culture is superior to another or all others. For example, ethnocentric people don’t just appreciate and enjoy their own cultural beliefs and practices, they think others’ are wrong and have a negative mentality about them.


Assimilation is the adjustment into a new culture. It is the process in which an individual or group’s culture begins to appear as another. For example, a family who immigrated to America may start to wear clothes purchased in American stores as part of their assimilation to the culture.

Family and Community Involvement

This competency tests your knowledge of advocating for ESL students, encouraging community involvement, and communicating effectively with their families.

Here are some concepts that may appear on the test.

Family Involvement

It is important for families to be involved in the education of ESL students for the same reason it is important for families to be involved in the education of all students-it increases student motivation and achievement! Students are more likely to value education if it is valued by their families. Teachers can facilitate participation by not allowing language barriers to stand in the way. Written communication should be sent in a language families can read and understand.

Communicating with Stakeholders

Teachers should create environments that feel comfortable and not intimidating to parents of ESL students. Teachers should make it clear to parents that they have a strong, shared interest in the student’s education.

Community Involvement

Community members can positively affect student learning in the ESL program by facilitating programs and events that make it clear these students are valued members of the community. Helpful resources can be available for ESL students and their families, such as appropriately leveled English language texts and technology in a library.

And that’s some basic info about Domain III.

Domain I: Language Concepts and Language Acquisition Practice Test

Question 1

Mr. Levitt notices that one of his English language learner students is adapting his speech depending on the social situation. The student best demonstrates an awareness of:

  1. language register.
  2. language function.
  3. morphology.
  4. phonology.

Correct answer: 1. A language register is the adaptation of one’s speech to fit certain social situations.

Question 2

Mrs. Lewis is planning a social studies unit for her ESL class. After reviewing the unit chapter, she notices the chapter is long and many words will be difficult for her students to understand. What is the best strategy for Mrs. Lewis to use in presenting the information to her students?

  1. Present only half of the information and assign the other half to be completed at home
  2. Only assign a few homework problems for the students to complete
  3. Provide a glossary of terms and highlight specific sections of importance for the students
  4. Present the lesson without adjustment

Correct answer: 3. This is the best option as students will have been provided resources to make the studying more efficient and to help them retain the information they need to know. It is best to amplify instruction to best suit the needs of the students.

Question 3

A teacher is perplexed by a recurring syllable appearing within words that the ESL student has included in his composition. The student explains that in his language there are ways to express affect by adding in this syllable. This is an example of:

  1. cognates.
  2. semantic drift.
  3. language interference.
  4. syntax.

Correct answer: 3. This is the correct answer. Information that a student uses from his first language that does not exist in the second language is an example of interference; when the information does exist and it is helpful to the student to use it, then it is called ‘transfer.’

Question 4

Students with home languages that derive from Latin will have an easier time learning the English counterparts of science vocabulary than students with Germanic home languages because:

  1. the syntactic elements are similar.
  2. the lexical items are similar.
  3. the discourse features are similar.
  4. the sound systems are similar.

Correct answer: 2. This is the only answer choice that relates to the meaning or definition of words. Lexical pertains to the subject of vocabulary given in the question.

Question 5

The past tense marker in English is -ed. Changing verbs from present to past tense simply requires adding this suffix. This is an example of (select all that apply):

  1. English grammar.
  2. English morphology.
  3. English syntax.

Correct answer: 1 and 2. English syntax refers to sentence structure and does not apply in this case.

Question 6

Mrs. Johnson has been working with an English language learner to develop his English language skills. The student has shown frustration in his progress because he feels many words are easier to say than to spell. She encourages the student to continue trying to pronounce words and write them correctly. Mrs. Johnson’s encouragement most accurately reflects the knowledge that:

  1. if a student cannot say a word, they will not be able to spell it.
  2. language skills are interrelated and do not develop sequentially.
  3. a student must have a positive attitude to learn a new language.
  4. the phonetics of some words are reflected in their spelling.

Correct answer: 2. This is true. Language skills are interrelated and the development in one area may prompt development in another.

Question 7

Mr. Hanson notices an ESL student looks confused during a conversation with fellow students about a baseball game. Mr. Hanson follows up with the student to ask why he looks confused. The student responds, “They said the batter hit a fly in the ninth to win the game.” The teacher asks what the student is confused about and the student replies, “Why would anybody throw cake batter at a fly in a game?” Which of the following is the most likely reason for the student’s confusion?

  1. The student is only familiar with soccer
  2. The student is not aware of the multiple meanings of the word “batter” and “fly” and how they pertain to baseball
  3. The student is not familiar with the baseball rules
  4. The students’ friends were not using proper terminology to discuss baseball

Correct answer: 2. This is the correct answer as many ESL students are not familiar with the multiple meanings of words in specific contexts, like the game of baseball.

Question 8

Some middle school ESL students are struggling with the current assignment on word order. The teacher explains again that there are certain rules in English that must be applied. She points out verb endings and other relevant information to one group more than once. Why might they be having such a hard time?

  1. They are not listening attentively
  2. They are having a conflict with the rules from their first language
  3. They do not want to work in their assigned groups
  4. They are not intelligent students

Correct answer: 2. This is the correct answer. Although the stereotypical tendencies of middle school students may sometimes hinder their cooperation, the question does not allude to any such tendencies.  The question gives a great example of first language interference which is very strong for this group of kids.

Question 9

Mr. MacMillan has a new ELL student in his English class. The new student knows very little English. Which of the following best describes when Mr. MacMillan should begin implementing writing assignments for the student? (Select all that apply)

  1. After the student has a 500-word oral vocabulary
  2. First, Mr. MacMillan should teach listening and speaking and then ease into reading
  3. Mr. MacMillan should begin teaching writing from the onset because the language skills need to be integrated

Correct answer: 3. There is no minimum number of words to be mastered prior to beginning writing. There is also no linear sequence for teaching language skills. Remember that the skills are integrated.

Question 10

Which of the following best describes children’s language development at birth?

  1. Children are born without a facility for language acquisition or processing and learn language through social interaction
  2. Children are born with a simple and complex understanding of syntactic rules
  3. Children are born without knowledge of language and learn through parental instruction
  4. Children are born with a natural predisposition for learning language and language rules

Correct answer: 4. According to language acquisition theory, children are born with a “language acquisition device.” This device helps their language development. Language acquisition theory also states that children unconsciously learn normal social interaction without the need of structured vocabulary teaching or grammatical structures.

Domain II: ESL Instruction and Assessment Practice Test

Question 1

Mrs. Brunson notices that many of her English language learner students understand the beginning of what she says but become lost as she progresses in her lectures. She decides it will be helpful to pause as she speaks. What is the most appropriate time to pause during her instruction?

  1. After every third word
  2. After every difficult word
  3. After every sentence
  4. After every complete thought

Correct answer: 4. This is the best choice. Once a thought is complete, a pause allows the listeners to process the information in its entirety to promote the ability to use context clues and the main ideas to define the words.

Question 2

Which of the following best describes content-based ESL instruction?

  1. Teaching concepts the students already know and helping them apply a new label to the new language
  2. Teaching content in a native language, then using the content to teach a new language
  3. Teaching a new language while simultaneously teaching new content, using the two concepts to complement learning.
  4. Teaching a language while simplifying current content taught in the classroom

Correct answer: 3. Content-based ESL instruction focuses on learning a second language as a medium to learning other academic areas.

Question 3

What is the greatest benefit in teaching English language learners new vocabulary with interconnected communication rather than in an isolated format?

  1. Students can gain a clear understanding of the definitions of the words
  2. Students do not try to predict the meaning of the words based on the context clues
  3. Students can use the context clues to decipher the meanings of the words, providing them a context for the new words
  4. Students are not overwhelmed with many words they may not know

Correct answer: 3. This is the best response because students are able to use context clues to process the new words.

Question 4

Which of the following would NOT be an indicator that an English language learner has reached a high oral proficiency?

  1. Being comfortable speaking in any situation
  2. Sounding like a native speaker
  3. Listening and understanding the message of most speakers
  4. Generally speaking with accurate grammar

Correct answer: 2. Sounding like a native speaker does not indicate a high oral proficiency. A student can memorize a phrase, accent, or terminology to sound like a native speaker but not have a high oral proficiency.

Question 5

Which of the following best describes a characteristic of a high frequency word:

  1. easy to spell.
  2. monosyllabic.
  3. found in conversational English.
  4. none of the above.

Correct answer: 4. This is the correct answer. The most frequently used words are not always one syllable in length (e.g., together) and are not necessarily easy to spell. In fact, that is why they are considered sight words. Whether a word is a high frequency word or not is based on its frequency of usage in written materials, not in spoken language.

Question 6

Mr. Rodriguez is teaching an instructional unit on supply and demand to his ELL students. He gives each student the choice of reading an article about supply and demand and filling out a worksheet or researching how a favorite video game is made and marketed. He notices an overwhelming majority of the students choose to do the research activity. Which of the following is the most likely reason the students chose this activity?

  1. There is no real way to grade the activity
  2. The activity has a real and applicable purpose to their everyday lives
  3. The activity will allow them to avoid learning and to not do their school work
  4. They did not feel the article would provide as much insight as real-world research

Correct answer: 2. This is the best option. Students respond much better to “authentic” activities or activities that they can apply to their lives.

Question 7

Which of the following statements is the most accurate about bilingualism regarding children?

  1. Simultaneous acquisition of two languages slows long-term language development because children tend to mix up the two languages
  2. Bilingual children often perform better on certain cognitive tasks, such as focusing on a task and switching attention between tasks
  3. Children who speak two languages often experience identity issues because they feel trapped between two worlds
  4. Most bilingual children grow up to be excellent translators and interpreters of the languages they speak

Correct answer: 2. This is correct.

Question 8

Follow-up activities are crucial to enhancing elementary students’ listening skills. Which one of the following activities would be most appropriate for students who are new to the country and have limited reading/writing skills in English?

  1. Conducting a class discussion about the key points of the story and then having the students perform a dramatic play about these events
  2. Writing questions and/or answering the written questions
  3. Acting out parts of the story after writing about the main points
  4. Asking a partner questions about the story and recording his/her answers

Correct answer: 1. Acting out a story or parts of a story is an excellent follow-up activity for ELL and other students in that the teacher can check for listening comprehension.

Question 9

What is the best resource to use in determining both classroom curriculum and classroom instructional goals for English language learners?

  1. The state standards for the curriculum outlined in the TEKS
  2. The state standards for the curriculum outlined in the TEKS, adjusting for English language learners
  3. The classroom textbook’s scope and sequence
  4. The classroom textbook’s scope and sequence, adjusting for English language learners

Correct answer: 1. State standards are not supposed to be “watered down” for any student even if the language proficiency is low. The teachers have to find a way to provide effective instruction and present instruction so students follow the teaching.

Question 10

Which of the following types of assessments would be most beneficial for assessing the academic achievement of an English language learner?

  1. A state standardized test from the preceding grade level
  2. A self-reflective survey filled out by the student and his parents gauging the success of the student in TEKS-aligned classroom objectives
  3. A standardized language proficiency test
  4. A teacher-designed test that will assess the student’s understanding and knowledge of the TEKS objectives that have been addressed in classroom instruction

Correct answer: 4. This is the best option as it will gauge the current achievement of the student in the concepts that have been taught. Because the teacher is able to create the test, the test will assess all material covered in class that the student is responsible to know.

Domain III: Foundations of ESL Education, Cultural Awareness and Family and Community Involvement Practice Test

Question 1

The state commissioner’s rules for educating English learners are contained in:

  1. Chapter 110.A Language Arts Knowledge and Skills.
  2. Chapter 89.BB Special Populations.
  3. Chapter 101.C Assessment.
  4. Chapter 93. ED.

Correct answer: 2. It is important to know the state code especially if you are the resource person on campus. All the references listed are accurate. ESL students do have to meet the regulations/standards in Chapters 110 and 101.

Question 2

English immersion is a practice that:

  1. does not provide support for non-English speakers and allows them to succeed or fail based on their language abilities.
  2. allows students to struggle in learning the English language while ensuring they have the resources necessary to succeed.
  3. places students in English-speaking classrooms without simplified content.
  4. allows students to succeed based on their language abilities.

Correct answer: 1. This is the correct answer. English immersion can be described as a laissez-faire policy.

Question 3

Staff members at a rural school with a growing ELL population are developing an ESL program to meet the needs of students. Which of the following questions can best ensure their program is in compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

  1. Does the ESL program develop English language proficiency while providing English language learners with equal opportunities to participate in the district’s educational program?
  2. Does the ESL program ensure that English language learners have access to the same educational resources?
  3. Does the ESL program establish specific English language and academic educational standards for English language learners in the district and measure students’ achievement of these standards?
  4. Does the ESL program ensure that English language learners’ educational progress is assessed in the same manner and frequency as students in the district who are native speakers of English?

Correct answer: 1. This is the correct answer.

Question 4

Mr. Gordon is a ninth-grade geography teacher who has many maps and photographs of historical locations in his class. He references these in his lectures throughout the year. Which of the following is the greatest benefit of these resources for his English language learner students?

  1. They provide decorations for the students to look at
  2. They provide learning tools for the ELL students when they become confused during instruction
  3. They provide visual representations of the concepts, ideas, or places discussed during class
  4. They provide references for students during student presentations

Correct answer: 3. This is the greatest benefit as it is important for students to be able to see visual images when discussing geographic concepts. For example, many students find it very beneficial to see a map of the Rocky Mountains as a way to re-enforce an understanding of their geographic location rather than merely a description of the mountains by the teacher.

Question 5

Along with promoting English proficiency among her students, Mrs. Armstrong strives to help her English language learners express their feelings and consider other students’ viewpoints. Of the following, what is the greatest benefit of this practice?

  1. Helping students understand English culture
  2. Allowing students to gain greater proficiency in English
  3. Encouraging high expectations in the students’ academic achievements
  4. Reducing conflicts among students with different backgrounds

Correct answer: 4. Helping students express their feelings and understand the viewpoints of others will help reduce conflicts among students of different cultures as misunderstandings are more likely to be prevented.

Question 6

Henry is an English language learner and has mastered the English language. He also performs well academically and participates in various extracurricular activities. He has many English-speaking friends; however, he continues to speak his primary language with his family and friends from his home country. Also, Henry is actively involved in community events that celebrate his heritage and home culture. Henry’s behavior is most indicative of which of the following?

  1. Assimilation
  2. Enculturation
  3. Deculturalization
  4. Acculturation

Correct answer: 4. Acculturation−the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture. This is what Henry is doing. He is not replacing his own culture but incorporating American culture while maintaining his primary heritage and culture.

Question 7

Which of the following statements best describes the academic integration of English language learners?

  1. Older students have more experience in school and can progress at a faster rate than the younger ones
  2. Younger students are better equipped to learn a new language and can progress at a faster rate than the older students
  3. Older students are better able to learn new languages
  4. Younger students have more time to learn academic concepts in the new language environment

Correct answer: 4. This is the best answer because younger students have more time to catch up and retain necessary information.

Question 8

What is the best way an ESL teacher could advocate for ESL students to the school’s staff and faculty? The teacher could provide information about the:

  1. strategies for assessing students and the need for simplifying the use of complex phrasing, idiomatic expressions, and cultural references.
  2. different cultural viewpoints about education.
  3. proper pronunciation of culturally sensitive words.
  4. different learning styles of the students.

Correct answer: 1. Helping the school’s staff and faculty better understand assessment strategies, and how to simplify the more difficult aspects of the English language, will allow them to better address the academic needs of the ESL students.

Question 9

A new teacher observes a veteran teacher present a new science lesson and notes that the content has not been modified even though almost one-half of the students are in the ESL program. In fact, the teacher has used very technical academic vocabulary during the presentation. Which instructional modification used by the master teacher would be most beneficial to aid the ESL students?

  1. None because all students should be treated equally and expected to know the material
  2. The students had visual support to follow in their texts so the teacher didn’t need to make any other adjustments
  3. The teacher provided explanations or examples of the technical vocabulary during the lesson delivery accompanied by a glossary of the technical academic vocabulary
  4. The teacher offered a translation of her lecture in the native languages of all the students

Correct answer: 3. This is the correct answer. Remember that the rule of thumb is to” amplify” and not “simplify” a lesson to make it more suitable for an English language learner. The explanations and glossary are a great way to amplify the lesson as well as start to integrate the technical vocabulary into the students’ English knowledge.

Question 10

An ESL teacher should always encourage the students to share information about school with their parents and use their native language at home. The greatest benefit to this activity is:

  1. it validates the parental role.
  2. it does not limit the communication between the parent and child regarding academic progress.
  3. it promotes the parents’ knowledge of the child’s school system.
  4. it allows the teacher to have more efficient interaction with the parent.

Correct answer: 2. Parents and students need to communicate about school and by requiring the students and parents to speak in English can limit that interaction. It is more important for students and parents to communicate about schoolwork and school activities than for students to use English in the home. Communication between students and parents is the highest priority among the answer choices.

Select to Login