This section tests your knowledge on communicating in the English language accurately and effectively.
Let’s talk about some concepts that are likely to pop up on the test.
A clause is a grammatical unit that contains a subject and predicate. It can stand alone as a complete thought.
A simple sentence contains only 1 clause. Example:
Tasha went to the playground.
A compound sentence contains at least 2 related clauses. Each could stand alone as its own sentence. Example:
I wanted to eat the last piece of pie, but I promised it to my sister.
A compound-complex sentence contains at least 2 related clauses. Also, at least 1 of those clauses is complex, meaning it contains both independent and dependent clauses. Dependent clauses cannot stand alone. Example:
When I get home, I will boil a kettle of water, and my husband will drink a cup of tea.
“When I get home” is the dependent clause in this compound-complex sentence, because it cannot stand alone as a complete thought.
Figurative language is a way to describe things indirectly. Writers use figurative language to add voice to their writing, encourage the reader to think and make their written piece interesting to read. Some common types of figurative language are simile, metaphor, personification, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, and idiom.
A simile is a comparison using the words “like” or “as.” Example:
The tree was tall like a skyscraper.
A metaphor is a direct comparison. Example:
The tree was a statue in the silent forest.
Personification gives human-like qualities or actions to non-human objects. Example:
The tree stretched its branches wide and invited the bird to use them as her new home.
An onomatopoeia is a sound word. Example:
Crunch! Crack! I stepped on dry acorns that fell from the tree.
A hyperbole is an over-the-top exaggeration that is not meant to be taken literally. Example:
I rested under a tree after my jog on the trails in the forest. I was so tired, I could have slept there through the whole winter.
An idiom is a common colloquial phrase that has a figurative, not literal, meaning. Example:
I barked up the wrong tree when I spent hours making pecan pie for my mother-in-law. I forgot she was allergic to nuts!
“Barking up the wrong tree” is an idiom that means to make a mistake or follow the wrong course.
Tiered vocabulary is a structured framework for classifying types of words.
Tier 1 vocabulary includes common words. These are basic vocabulary words that typically do not require direct instruction. They occur frequently in everyday spoken language and usually only have one meaning. Some examples are happy, run, and animal.
Tier 2 vocabulary includes high-frequency words that occur across the curriculum. They are not heard as often as Tier 1 vocabulary words and may have multiple meanings. Students who are not yet mature language users may require direct instruction on these vocabulary words when found in print. Some examples are data, process, and contrast.
Tier 3 vocabulary includes content-specific words that are typically only used within that specific content. Students require direct instruction on these vocabulary words in order to demonstrate mastery of the content. Some examples are continent, sedimentary, and democracy.
And that’s some basic info about the Language and Literacy content category.