This section tests your knowledge of the role of phonics in promoting reading development. This includes but is not limited to:
- decoding vs. encoding
- common word patterns
- blending letter sounds
Let’s look at some concepts that are guaranteed to come up on the test.
Automaticity is the ability to quickly AND accurately identify words. Automaticity develops more and more as children read. It does not include reading with expression and is not the same thing as reading fluency. Automaticity is necessary for developing fluency so that children can read with better expression and more fluidly.
Decoding versus Encoding
- Decoding is converting symbols (letters) to sounds in spoken language.
- Encoding is converting sounds to symbols (letters/words) in written language.
Decoding and encoding rely on a student’s phonological awareness which includes their understanding of sounds, letters, and how both work together to create spoken and written language.
Fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with expression. Fluency is important because it provides the bridge between recognizing a word and understanding the context and meaning of the word.
Here are the components of fluency:
- prosody– reading sentences/words with the appropriate expression
- accuracy– reading words correctly
- automaticity– reading words accurately and quickly
Let’s look at some strategies for effective fluency instruction:
- pre-teach vocabulary
- provide a variety of books and materials to read
- record students reading aloud
- instruct students to track using a ruler or finger
- drill sight words
- provide opportunities for students to reread materials
- read aloud to students consistently
Common Word Patterns
Word patterns are predictable patterns of sounds (consonants and vowels) that form words.
CVC- A consonant is followed by a vowel and another consonant to create a syllable, usually with a short vowel sound (bat, top, kid).
CVCe- Same as above, but a silent e is found at the end of the word. This usually makes the vowel of the word long (hike, tone, make).
CVCC- Here you have words that end with two consonants (cart, best, half).
Understanding word patterns strengthens a child’s phonological and phonemic awareness which, in turn, strengthens a child’s reading fluency.