This section tests your knowledge of growth, motor development, and motor learning and their applications to the physical education environment.
Let’s discuss some concepts that will more than likely appear on the test.
Kinesthetic discrimination is one’s ability to recognize changes that involve muscle feelings and body motions. This involves a body’s ability to maintain balance on a bike or to determine which way to run to catch the ball.
Skill acquisition is how athletes learn and retain new skills. There are three stages of skill acquisition: cognitive, associative, and autonomous. The cognitive stage is when the athlete has to think about the skill and how to retain it. This stage requires a lot of frequent feedback. The associative stage is the longest stage where the athlete practices the skill with errors becoming less frequent. The last stage, autonomous, is when the athlete can think about other aspects of the competition rather than just the skill alone.
Kinesthetic discrimination relates to skill acquisition because in order for athletes to move through the stages of skill acquisition they must understand their body’s muscle feelings and motions. An example of kinesthetic discrimination involved with skill acquisition is juggling. In the cognitive stage, the body focuses on throwing the object while determining what muscles need to be used. In the associative stage, the body begins to practice juggling to master this concept. Lastly, an individual in the autonomous stage would be able to juggle and walk around or spin around at the same time.
Gross Motor Development
Gross motor development is the progression of skills learned that require the whole body to perform everyday functions. Examples include standing, walking, and sitting upright. It also includes hand-eye coordination like throwing, hitting, and kicking. A child is expected to hit milestones during certain age ranges. Each stage of development assumes that the preceding stages have already been achieved.
Check out more age groups for gross motor development as well as possible implications if milestones are not achieved. https://childdevelopment.com.au/resources/child-development-charts/gross-motor-developmental-chart/
Cerebral palsy is a muscle impairment condition caused by damage to the brain before or at birth. There are different types of cerebral palsy. Spastic cerebral palsy causes stiffness and movement difficulties. Dyskinetic (athetoid) cerebral palsy causes uncontrolled movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy causes problems with balance and depth perception. Cerebral palsy can affect motor learning and development. It can delay certain milestones a child should hit, delaying their overall motor development, or it can stop motor development entirely. A child with cerebral palsy struggles with a variety of motor development difficulties, including but not limited to:
- Not reaching for toys by 4 months
- Not sitting up by 7 months
- Unable to crawl, walk, or move arms and legs in the usual way
- Uncoordinated movements
- Muscle tone that is too tight or too loose