TExES Special Education EC-12 Ultimate Guide2019-05-01T16:02:19+00:00

TExES Special Education EC-12: Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the TExES Special Education EC-12?

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You’ve found the right page. We will answer every question you have and tell you exactly what you need to study to pass the TExES Special Education EC-12.

TExES Special Education EC-12 Quick Facts

The purpose of the TExES Special Education EC-12 assessment is to determine whether or not the test taker has the needed skills and knowledge to become a special educator for early childhood to grade 12.

The four domains of the test truly focus on the areas that future special educators need to be proficient in. It’s not only important for a special educator to have knowledge about English and math but to also be able to know how to help their students succeed and make progress (all while following the many, specific laws pertaining to special education).

Cost:

This assessment will cost $116. The TExES Special Education EC-12 assessment can be taken anytime during the year. In order to register for this assessment, you will need to go to the Texas Educator Certification Examination Program and click “Register Now” at the bottom of the page.

Scoring:

The score range for this assessment is 100 to 300. In order to pass this test, you will need to score a 240 or higher.

Study time:

In order to pass the TExES Special Education EC-12 assessment, the amount of time needed to study will vary from person to person. Be sure to give yourself at least two months time to adequately prepare. For a trusted, thorough study guide with tons of practice questions and materials, check out 240Tutoring’s TExES Special Education EC-12 study guide.

What test takers wish they would’ve known:

  • Review all test-taking policies well in advance of arriving to the testing center
  • Assure you’ve brought needed materials, including required identification
  • Research routes and traffic patterns and allow yourself plenty of time to travel to the testing center
  • Dress in layers
  • Find your confidence and take the test with a positive attitude!

Information and screenshots obtained from the National Evaluation Series website.

Domain 1- Understanding Individuals with Disabilities and Evaluating Their Needs

Overview

Domain 1 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test has about 20 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 13% of the entire exam.

This Domain can be neatly divided into 2 competencies.

  • Characteristics and Needs
  • Assessment and Evaluation

So, let’s talk about them.

Characteristics and Needs

This section tests your knowledge of the human development process and how the special educator can use this knowledge to provide appropriate instruction to meet students’ different needs.

Let’s talk about some concepts that you will more than likely see on the test.

Behavioral Disorders

When a child is exhibiting a variety of negative behaviors (i.e. blurting, lack of attention, hyperactivity, problems interacting with peers and adults appropriately, self-harm, harm to others and things, etc.) for a minimum of six months and these behaviors cause problems for the student at home, school, and in the community, the child is considered to have a behavioral disorder. In order for the child to become officially diagnosed, assessments by a certified psychologist or psychiatrist need to be completed.  

Many people automatically think of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) or ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) when they hear the term behavioral disorders. “Behavioral disorders” is an umbrella term that covers and diagnoses a wide array of behaviors that can negatively impact the child and his/her life. In addition to ADHD and ADD, there are additional behavioral disorders that a child can be diagnosed with.

  • Emotional Behavior Disorder is a disorder in which a child struggles with the ability to be happy, interact appropriately with others, and focus.
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a disorder in which a child struggles with dealing with authority, following directions, and complying with what is asked of him/her, etc.
  • Anxiety is another common disorder in which a child feels extremely nervous in different situations (social, test-taking, general) to the point where he/she is unable to cope, complete the task (i.e. take a test), etc.
  • OCD or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a disorder in which a child will repetitively complete tasks in a certain manner in order to deal with stress.

These are just a few examples of common behavioral disorders.

Communication Patterns

There are three different types of communication patterns:

  • Normal
  • Delayed
  • Disordered (including non-symbolic communication or communication that does not use symbols)

Normal communication patterns begin at birth when a child is listening to the parents’ voices and begins to make different sounds. Then when the child is around twelve months old, he/she will begin to say one-word words (i.e. mama, dada, go, dog). As the child gets older, he/she will begin to form simple sentences to convey wants and needs. This progression will continue as the child grows and develops, communicating with others in social and educational settings, as well as in the home.

Delayed communication patterns occur when a child has developed communication skills, but beyond the “normal” timeline. The important thing to remember is that with delayed communication patterns, the child will develop the same communication as their peers, just at a later time.  

Disordered communication patterns are when a child has a difficult time with the following:

  • expressing (expressive communication) verbally, nonverbally, and through symbols
  • receiving (receptive communication) information, as well as comprehending and processing information that is communicated

Children with speech and language disabilities can be impacted in different ways. If the child has an expressive language disorder (difficult time communicating with others out loud verbally or with symbols; sign language, braille, etc.), this can cause great problems in how the child socially interacts with peers, adults, and family members. It can also be extremely frustrating to the child to not be able to convey his/her wants and needs to others. If the child is unable to process or comprehend what is being communicated to him/her, this can cause difficulties with academics and daily living skills.

Assessment and Evaluation

This section tests how you would use your knowledge of a student’s background to develop instruction that meets the student’s needs and assessments that measure the student’s progress. Both are needed to create a learning environment for every student to learn and thrive.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Ethical Concerns

According to the Council for Exceptional Children (an organization that provides information, resources, and professional development to special educators), there are several ethical concerns relating to the assessment and evaluation of individuals with disabilities. Practicing professional ethics in regards to following laws, regulation policies, etc. is very important for all special educators to do. This means that special educators need to make sure that assessments are completed in an honest and consistent manner that truly measure and identify the needs of each student. It is also important that the data from evaluations and assessments are shared with parents and other members of the student’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP) team.

It is important that an unbiased evaluation is conducted. An unbiased evaluation is conducted by an evaluator with a completely open mind. Many different types of psychometric instruments and instructional assessments can be used to identify the student’s needs and help develop, implement, and monitor the different goals written in the IEP.  

A psychometric instrument is an assessment used to measure a student’s knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits and is usually conducted to identify the student’s special needs, as well as to complete three-year evaluations. There are many different examples of psychometric instruments that can be used to evaluate a student with special needs including the following:

  • Psychological Assessment (by the school psychologist) to assess a student’s behaviors and adaptive functioning skills
  • Educational Assessment (by the special educator) to assess academic skills
  • Sociocultural Assessment (by a social worker at the student’s home) to assess adaptive behavior and the home environment
  • Developmental Assessment (by the special educator) to assess children ages five and under in early skill knowledge, adaptive behaviors, communication, and fine motor skills
  • Specific Specialty Area Testing to assess speech and language by a Speech and Language Therapist, fine motor skills by an Occupational Therapist, and gross motor skills by a Physical Therapist.

Instructional assessments measure students’ progress for each Individualized Education Plan goal. These types of assessments, like curriculum-based measurement (CBM), are utilized based on the frequency that the IEP team agreed on for progress monitoring (i.e. daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.). This data allows the special educator to determine whether or not the student is making progress on his/her goals. If not, the instruction might need to change or the goal may need to be amended and, therefore, changed. If the student is consistently making progress, the IEP team may decide to either discontinue services in that area or write a new goal.

Assessment Design

Ecological assessments, portfolio assessments, task analysis, and functional assessments (including behavioral, social, and communication) are examples of different assessment designs that can be used to identify, provide, and monitor the services and goals that are provided to students with special needs.

And that’s some basic info about Domain 1 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test.

Domain 2- Promoting Student Learning and Development

Overview

Domain 2 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test has about 50 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 33% of the entire exam.

This Domain can be neatly divided into 5 competencies.

  • Planning Instruction
  • Environment
  • Promoting Performance
  • Behavior and Social Skills
  • Transition

So, let’s discuss them.

Planning Instruction

This section tests your knowledge of whether or not you understand the procedures to make appropriate instructional plans for students with special needs.

Let’s talk about some concepts that you will more than likely see on the test.

Skills

There are many skills that can be identified and addressed when developing a student’s IEP, monitoring the student’s progress, and conducting three-year evaluations. Cognitive, academic, social, language, affective, motor, functional, transition, and career life skills can be addressed in the student’s Individualized Education Plan.

  • Cognitive skills are the main skills that your brain uses in order to think, learn, remember focus, and reason.  
  • Academic skills focus on core subjects such as reading, writing, math, social studies, science, etc.  
  • Language skills are skills in which a student can comprehend what is being told to them verbally (or through symbols) and express verbally (or through symbols) to others. The four main language skills are listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  
  • Affective skills look at the student’s interests, attitudes, and feelings.  
  • Motor skills involve the small muscles (fine motor skills), as well as the larger muscles (gross motor skills). The small muscles of the fingers, hands, and forearms can affect a student’s writing and daily living skills (dressing, eating, cleaning, etc.). The large muscles of the arms, legs, and torso can affect the student’s mobility.  
  • Functional skills are skills that a student needs to know in order to live as independently as possible (i.e cooking, cleaning, dressing, grooming, accessing transportation, etc.).  
  • Transition skills assist the student from going from one activity to another, as well as with transitions in life (i.e. transition from preschool to elementary school, transition from elementary school to junior high, etc.).
  • Career life skills are skills that a student needs in order to apply for a job, participate in an interview, complete tasks in a job, etc.

IEPs

IEP is an acronym for Individualized Education Plan. A student’s IEP is developed by his or her IEP team (i.e parents, special educator, general educator, principal, service providers, student, etc.). The IEP addresses:

  • the student’s strengths
  • areas that the student needs additional services for
  • where the student is currently at in those areas through collection of assessment data
  • goals for each of the areas that the student qualifies for (i.e. reading, writing, math, social skills, speech, mobility, occupational skills, vocational skills, etc)
  • who will provide the service and how often
  • what adaptations and modifications will be provided
  • whether or not the student will participate in regular Physical Education (P.E.) and district-wide assessments.  

In some cases, an IEP might specify that the student needs special transportation to and from school, as well as a health plan to address different medical needs and services.

An IEP is an excellent resource for special educators who will be responsible for providing and managing services, progress monitoring for each goal, and providing accommodations and modifications for the student. A student’s IEP addresses all of these and more for the special educator and general educator (if the student is in general education classes).  

It is important to note that IEP goals can be changed. If the child has mastered the goal or is not making progress towards a goal, the special educator can decide what needs to be done next (i.e. change instructional methods, omit the goal completely, rewrite the goal, write a new goal, etc.). This would be done with the IEP team’s assistance.

Environment

This section tests your knowledge of providing a learning environment that is safe and positive, utilizing classroom time properly, developing effective routines, implementing effective classroom management, and utilizing appropriate assistive technology devices with students.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Classroom Management

Classroom management is important for all educators to consider and plan for in order for students to learn and thrive. It is important for students to know the following:

  • Rules
  • Expectations
  • Grading procedures
  • Consequences for poor choices

Another component of classroom management to consider is the classroom setup itself.

Are there too many distractions such as posters, bulletin boards, etc.?

Where will students sit and how will the seating be set up (for both individualized and whole group instruction)?  

Which students need to sit near the front of the classroom (for various reasons)?  

It is important to know in advance what your students’ needs are and to be proactive when setting up the classroom. After the first couple of days of getting to know your students, you may need to make adjustments. It is crucial as a special educator to be flexible.

Assistive Technology

According to the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), assistive technology is any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities. There are two types of assistive technology:

  • high tech assistive technology
  • low tech assistive technology

High tech assistive technology devices, according to Tools for Life, are the most complex devices or equipment that:

  • have digital or electronic components
  • require training
  • cost the most money

Some examples of high tech assistive technology are:

  • electronic augmentative communication devices (technology for children who are nonverbal)
  • hearing aids
  • electric wheelchairs
  • computers
  • different computer features (text to speech, voice recognition, word prediction, etc.)

Low tech assistive technology, according to Tools for Life, are devices or equipment that:

  • do not require much training
  • are less expensive
  • do not have complex features

Some examples of low tech assistive technology are:

  • large font worksheets
  • audiobooks
  • sandpaper (to place underwriting paper to receive sensory input while writing)
  • pencil grips
  • raised lined paper or highlighted paper
  • graphic organizers
  • reading guide highlighter strips
  • highlighter tape (to assist with note-taking)
  • colored transparencies (to use for reading)
  • grid paper (assists children in making sure their numbers are in neat rows in math)
  • kitchen timers
  • visual schedules
  • velcro (that can be used for folder activities, visual schedules, etc.)

Assistive technology, whether low or high technology, can provide tools and easier access to learning for students with special needs.

Promoting Performance

This section tests your knowledge of how to provide resources to families and applicable staff (i.e. individuals that are part of the student’s IEP team), utilize assessments for progress monitoring, implement the knowledge gained from assessments to provide effective instruction to students, motivate students, identify different learning styles, provide instruction to help students gain and learn life skills, and utilize different types of technology within the classroom.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Resource

Special education teachers can serve as a resource for families, general education teachers, administrators, and other personnel in many ways. One way to do this is to make sure that there is open communication through face-to-face interactions, phone calls, emails, etc. A special educator needs to make sure that families and school personnel believe that they can express their concerns or ask questions of them at any time.

Another way that a special educator can serve as a resource to families and school personnel is to make sure to share, with all IEP team members, students’ progress, as well as areas that need to be improved upon.  

Finally, a special educator can serve as a resource by providing information about other resources in the community, school, etc., that could provide additional opportunities and assistance to students’ families.

Modifying Instruction

Students learn in many different ways. Listed below are the four main learning styles, as well as how to incorporate them into your classroom:

Here are some other terms you should know:

  • Instructional materials are any material such as workbooks, dry erase boards, computers, reading books, iPads, etc., that can be used to teach any skill.
  • Compensatory skills/materials are the usage of strategies, techniques, and adapted materials for students with visual impairments. Some examples of compensatory skills are teaching how to read and write braille, reading large print (if applicable), using voice output technology (i.e. voice-to-text tool on the computer), etc.  
  • Enrichment activities are activities that a teacher can have students do in addition to what was originally assigned. For example, if the class is learning about fractions, the teacher can provide an enrichment activity of using a recipe to bake cookies. Some other examples of enrichment activities are field trips, speakers coming to the classroom, arts and craft projects, etc.  

Remedial methods are methods that the special educator uses to reteach and assist students who are struggling with a specific skill or concept. For example, if a student is struggling with reading simple sentences, the special educator may need to reteach how to read sight words.

Behavior and Social Skills

This section tests your knowledge of appropriately identifying, assessing, and teaching appropriate behavior and social skills to students with special needs.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Behavior Management Techniques

There are many different types of behavior management techniques that a special educator can implement within the classroom. Let’s take a look at a few.

Learning Environments

Modifying students’ learning environment is a proactive way to promote appropriate behaviors. It is important that students know what the classroom rules and expectations are on the first day of school. Some additional ways to modify students’ environment is by providing a routine (i.e. a schedule with visuals), teaching organizational skills (i.e. where to place assignments, school supplies, books, backpacks, etc.), and letting students know in advance (if possible) if there will be any schedule changes. Many students thrive on predictability. If predictability and routine do not exist, there is an increased chance of students exhibiting negative behaviors.

For physical arrangements of the classroom, it is important to decide in advance where to place tables, desks, and chairs for desk work and small group work. It is beneficial to place tables that will be used for small group instruction away from windows and the classroom door.

In addition to modifying the learning environment in the classroom, it is just as important to incorporate instructional arrangements.  Instructional arrangements is a code used by school districts to document the instructional setting for students with special needs who may be in a special education setting full-time or part-time. When a special needs student is receiving instruction in a general education setting, even for a short amount of time, it is important to communicate with the general educator about the student’s needs and accommodations. This is also true if a paraeducator is assigned to a student in special education and/or general education setting. Communication is key!

Transition

This section tests your knowledge of how transition impacts students with special needs and how to assist students with a wide array of transitions, not only at school but also in life.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Programs and Services

There are many different programs and services available to assist students and families in planning for transition. The transition from preschool to kindergarten, elementary to middle, and middle to high school, can be done with the school personnel from both sides working together with families, students, and any additional staff members from the students’ Individualized Education Plan team.

When a student with special needs is ready for the big transition from

high school to postsecondary plans, additional resources need to be shared with families and students. Some resources that are available are Special Education Information Center, Partners Resource Network, Texas Health and Human Services, Texas Project FIRST, etc.

Coping Skills

There are many skills that students need to learn in order to cope with the transition. First, they need to know what different transitions look like. Next, they need to know what is expected of them during transitions and how to handle them. Finally, they need to be taught how to handle unexpected transitions (i.e. fire drill,

tornado drill, transitioning from class to a school-wide program, etc.). These skills can be taught in a variety of ways. Some methods of teaching coping skills include:

  • using social stories
  • having students act out different situations (and helping them problem-solve)
  • the special educator modeling how to use those skills while using the think-aloud method   

And that’s some basic info about Domain 2 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test.

Domain 3- Promoting Student Achievement in English Language Arts and Reading and in Mathematics

Overview

Domain 3 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test has about 50 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 33% of the entire exam.

This Domain can be neatly divided into 2 competencies:

  • English Language Arts and Reading
  • Mathematics

So, let’s talk about them.

English Language Arts and Reading

This section tests your knowledge of how to teach and assess students with special needs in the area of English (reading, writing, spelling, and grammar).

Let’s talk about some concepts that you will more than likely see on the test.

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize and work with the sounds of verbal language.

Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and work with phonemes (individual sounds) in spoken words.  

There are several strategies to promote both phonological and phonemic awareness for students with disabilities:

  • play word and sound games
  • connect visuals (drawn or sign language) to specific sounds, words, etc.
  • write the sounds or words that the student hears (if writing is difficult, the student can type them on the computer)
  • read books with the student at his/her instructional level
  • provide an audiobook with the actual book (student can hear and see the sounds, words, etc.)
  • teach specific phonological and/or phonemic skills that the student is struggling with

Fluency and Comprehension

Reading fluency is how fast and accurate a student can read. Fluency affects reading comprehension because a student needs to read fluently in order to understand what he/she is reading. If the student reads too fast, he/she may miss important information and details. If the student reads too slow, then he/she is more likely to forget what was read at the beginning of the story or passage.

There are several strategies that special education teachers can use to promote fluency and comprehension for students with learning disabilities. The first important thing to do is to assess where the student is performing at in reading fluency and comprehension. This will help you identify what the student is struggling with. Once this is determined, decide which of the following strategies will work for the student:

  • provide direct instruction (review previous skill, teach a new skill, work with student one-on-one on a new skill, let student practice the new skill independently, assess the student on that skill)
  • teach word attack skills
  • provide additional instruction in decoding and phonemic awareness
  • provide opportunities to practice skills at the student’s instructional level
  • utilize advanced organizers or story maps to develop comprehension
  • ask questions while reading the passage or story
  • teach the student how to think aloud while reading

Mathematics

This section tests your knowledge of how to teach and assess students with special needs in the area of math (i.e. number recognition, number systems, operations, algebra, geometry, etc.).

Here is a concept that is likely to appear on the test.

Reasoning and Problem Solving

Reasoning and problem solving can be very challenging for students with disabilities. With both, it is important that the student understands the problem (i.e. What are they solving for? What are the important details? What details are not important? Is it a multi-step problem?), creates a plan to understand the problem, creates a plan to solve the problem, and checks the answer (i.e. Does the answer make sense? Did I answer the question?).  

There are several tools and strategies that can be used to help students understand the problem:

  • SQR (Survey, Question, Read)
  • mnemonic devices
  • graphic organizers
  • paraphrasing
  • visualization (draw pictures to help the student visualize the problem)
  • analyze information from the problem itself

There are also several strategies available to help students devise a plan to solve a problem:

  • hypothesize and estimate
  • look for a pattern
  • use a formula
  • work backward

It is also important to consider students’ learning styles. If you have a visual learner, you might need to use graphic organizers, pictures, etc. If you have a kinesthetic learner, however, you can use counting blocks or physical items that are small and can be easily moved. For an auditory learner, you can use songs, acronyms, audiobooks, etc. It is important to note that students might need more than one strategy to use, especially for more complex math problems.

And that’s some basic info about Domain 3 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test.

Domain 4- Foundations and Professional Roles and Responsibilities

Overview

Domain 4 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test has about 30 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 20% of the entire exam.

This Domain can be neatly divided into 3 competencies:

  • Foundations
  • Requirements
  • Communication and Collaboration

So, let’s talk about them.

Foundations

This section tests your knowledge of the history, legalities, and philosophies related to special education.

Let’s talk about some concepts that you will more than likely see on the test.

Educational Terminology

There is very specific terminology related to the field of special education. Check out the chart below which shows the types of disabilities, corresponding definitions, and the prevalence of each disability (% of all children receiving special education services).

Requirements

This section tests your knowledge of understanding the roles and responsibilities of a special educator, as well as the laws related to the special education field and providing services.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Least Restrictive Environment

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE), according to IDEA, states that children should receive special education services in an environment that they can receive the needed resources (as stated in their Individualized Education Plans) while being in settings with typical peers as much as possible.

Special educators should be an advocate for their students and support their educational needs in the Least Restrictive Environment. There are many ways that special educators can achieve this. Special educators need to advocate for their students at IEP meetings and share ways that they can provide support to the student while still receiving services in a Least Restrictive Environment.  

Another way to achieve this is through open communication with general educators that have special education students in their classrooms. A special educator needs to share information regarding the student (in confidentiality) that states and explains the instructional levels of the students, accommodations needed, health concerns, behavior plans, etc. It is also important to check-in with the general education teacher frequently if a student is in a general education setting for any amount of time. This is a great way to be proactive and handle problems that may come up.  

Another way for special educators to advocate for LRE is by co-teaching (i.e. teaching a subject area with a general educator). This would allow the special educator to provide immediate assistance to the student and general educator as needed.

Confidentiality

Procedural safeguards are procedures that ensure that children with special needs (and their parents) are protected; they are established in clear steps that are used to address problems and disagreements. The Notice of Procedural Safeguards is given to parents/guardians of students once a year. It can also be given to parents/guardians at the following times:

  • initial referral or the request by parents for an evaluation
  • at the beginning of an Individualized Education Plan meeting
  • when a special education complaint is filed by parents
  • the first due process hearing complaint
  • when a decision has been made to take disciplinary action to move a student to a different placement for educational services
  • whenever a parent/guardian requests one

In addition to procedural safeguards, special educators need to understand their role in safeguarding the confidentiality of data and information regarding students with disabilities. According to IDEA Part B, confidentiality is required and applied to students’ records that are collected or maintained once they begin receiving services. In addition to this, any personal, identifiable data, information, and records collected or maintained by local educational agencies, as addressed in Part B of IDEA, must be kept confidential.  

Communication and Collaboration

This section tests your knowledge of how to communicate and work well with others in a variety of settings.

Here are some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Family Concerns

Families of individuals with disabilities will have many concerns. These concerns will vary depending on students’ needs. These concerns may include the following

  • understanding the child’s disability and its impact on friendships
  • how they can help with making progress at school
  • whether or not the accommodations are appropriate for the child’s needs
  • whether or not the child is truly in the least restrictive environment and receiving needed services
  • the rights that they (the parents) have
  • how they can advocate for their child  

These concerns can be addressed by:

  • listening to parents’ concerns
  • answering questions that they have
  • providing resources in the school and in the community
  • developing programs to help students with special needs have interactions with typical peers (i.e. Special Olympics, Best Buddies, etc.)
  • sharing ideas and strategies that can be used at home by parents to assist their children
  • sharing progress with families (i.e. emails, phone calls, charts to show progress for each goal, etc.)
  • informing parents about the Individualized Education Plan and their role in it
  • discussing their rights as stated in the Procedural Safeguards

ARD

ARD, or Admission, Review, and Dismissal is a process in which special educators and support staff, as well as the parents of children with special needs, meet together to discuss children’s needs, abilities, desires, and expectations.

An ARD meeting for a child, who is eligible for services and accommodations through the IEP, can be held for the following reasons:

  • the student has begun school
  • a new diagnosis and/or assessments have been completed
  • the student is new to the school district
  • time for annual review
  • special education teacher is requesting changes in the IEP
  • the student is transitioning from academic to post-secondary skills (i.e. job skills, life-skills, daily living skills, etc.)
  • the student is transitioning out of special education services or out of public school completely
  • the student is exhibiting behavior challenges that is impacting his/her education
  • the student has either mastered or is not making progress on IEP goals

Prior to the ARD meeting, parents have the right to ask any questions. At the actual ARD meeting, the following individuals may be in attendance:

  • child’s parents/guardians
  • child (must attend at age 18, but can attend at any age)
  • child’s regular education teacher
  • special education teacher
  • at least one school district representative
  • anyone else who is invited by the parents/guardians or the school district

This group of individuals is also known as the ARD committee or ARD team. The following items may be discussed at this meeting:

  • whether or not the child is eligible for special education services
  • the child’s progress on each goal, as well as whether or not the goal will be continued or changed
  • types of services and accommodations that the child needs
  • scores from the child’s recent statewide testing

After all of these items have been addressed, an IEP will be created and passed around for everyone to sign. When each member receives it, he/she can state whether he/she accepts it. If a member does not agree, that member can write down the areas that he/she does not agree with. Each member still has the option, including parents/guardians, to not sign the IEP, ask for more time before he/she signs it, or ask for another meeting to discuss the areas that were not agreed upon.

The ARD committee meeting must meet:

  • within 30 calendar days of the completion of a student’s Full and Individual Evaluation (FIE)
  • annually to review and update the IEP
  • when services or goals need to be changed or removed

And that’s some basic info about Domain 4 of the TExES Special Education EC-12 test.

Exam Content Practice Test

Question 1

Which of the following IDEA categories of disability impacts the highest percentage of students?

  1. specific learning disability
  2. physical impairment
  3. intellectual disability
  4. communication impairment

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. Specific learning disabilities are the most common.
  2. Physical impairment is not specifically included in the IDEA categories.
  3. Intellectual disability is not specifically included in the IDEA categories.
  4. Communication impairment is not specifically included in the IDEA categories.

Question 2

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a condition in which the body is unable to remove wastes at a typical rate such as mucus from the lungs. Jack’s parents have notified the school that he will need a special breathing treatment that lasts about 30 minutes once a day at school to help minimize the effects of his disease. Under what category would Jack qualify for special education services?

  1. Medical Disability
  2. Speech or Language Impairment
  3. Other Health Impairment (OHI)
  4. Specific Learning Disability

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. A Medical Disability is not a qualifying category.
  2. While his lungs are impacted, his speech is not.
  3. CF will impact Jack’s ability to be on task and he will miss 30 minutes of instruction daily. This is considered OHI under special education.
  4. This is not a disability in math, reading, or writing.

Question 3

A high school resource teacher is teaching her math class about equivalent fractions. She has taught about fractions at the front of the room and students have tried working problems at their desk. Some of them are continuing to struggle. What other activity can she engage her students in to ensure all learning styles have been addressed?

  1. provide worksheets as homework so they can discuss with their parents
  2. have them create a presentation on equivalent fractions
  3. make a recipe that has fractions in the amounts of needed ingredients
  4. using fraction tiles to identify equivalent fractions

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. This is additional visual learning.
  2. This is an additional visual and auditory learning.
  3. This is great reinforcement activity on fractions but does not necessarily teach equivalent fractions.
  4. This allows kinesthetic learners to practice fractions with a manipulative and have hands-on practice.

Question 4

In Ms. Jackson’s emotional behavior support self-contained class, her nine students are most likely to have difficulty with which of the following aspects of communication development?

  1. understanding new vocabulary words in context
  2. being able to interpret a speaker’s feelings from their tone of voice
  3. speech production free of articulation errors
  4. being able to use syntax patterns that are correct

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. This is not specific to students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
  2. This is the correct answer because students with emotional and behavioral disabilities don’t understand nonverbal communication well such as tone of voice.
  3. This is not specific to students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
  4. This is not specific to students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

Question 5

A student with a learning disability experiences negative side effects from their ADHD medication. Which of the following accommodations may be appropriate for the ARD committee to consider in designing the IEP for this student?

  1. extended time to complete assignments
  2. one-on-one instruction
  3. a refocus area
  4. a snack during the morning

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. Extending the time to complete assignments may negatively impact the student’s academic progress if they begin to get behind. ADHD medicine should be helping the student maintain attention and lessen the need for an extended time.
  2. One-on-one instruction is not accommodation for medication side effects.
  3. A refocus area is usually considered if the student is in need of emotional support.
  4. ADHD medication can affect hunger, so a snack would be an appropriate accommodation.

Question 6

True or False: The transition plan for a high school student is reviewed and updated every year during the annual Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) committee meeting.

  1. True, this is a requirement of the IDEA and the Texas Education Code
  2. True, it is also updated at the end of every semester
  3. False, the transition plan only needs to be done once upon the student’s entrance of the school and does not have to be done again unless there is no progress made
  4. False, the transition plan is reviewed and updated during the Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) and not at the ARD meeting

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. As required by IDEA and the Texas Education Code, the ARD committee must discuss, review, and update the transition plan annually. The special education teacher implements the procedures needed to facilitate the transition process.
  2. The transition plan is only updated annually, not every semester.
  3. This transition plan is reviewed and updated during the ARD as stated in the question.
  4. This transition plan is reviewed and updated during the ARD as stated in the question.

Question 7

Which of the following would be illegal when considering a child for special education services?

  1. qualifying a child in high school that has been able to pass previous grades
  2. testing all children in English
  3. using multiple tests to assess a disability
  4. allowing a committee to make the decision if services are appropriate

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. A student can qualify at any time during their academic career.
  2. Children must be tested in their native language. It is illegal to require all students to test in English.
  3. It is necessary to have more than one assessment to ensure reliability.
  4. A committee must make decisions about services, not just one person.

Question 8

When deciding the least restrictive environment (LRE) for a student with disabilities, what should the IEP team consider?

  1. the disability levels of the other students in the classroom
  2. the opinion of previous educators of the student
  3. the distance of base school as compared to the regional program location
  4. frequency, location, duration, and intensity of the identified services needed by the student

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. This is not a consideration for LRE.
  2. This is not a consideration for LRE.
  3. This is not a consideration for LRE.
  4. This is the correct answer because LRE considerations include frequency, location, and duration of the special education and related services.

Question 9

According to the guidelines, the IEP committee must address all of the following when planning for students with autism except:

  1. typical grade-level peers
  2. behavioral and social strategies
  3. in-home training
  4. community-based training

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. While curriculum influences a student’s goals, an IEP should be focused on that student as an individual rather than comparing them to grade level peers.
  2. This is a key component to the development and implementation of the IEP objectives for students with autism. Behavioral strategies focus on positive behavioral interventions, while social strategies focus on positive social interaction.
  3. In-home training provides effective transition strategies between home and school and can be vital when it comes to properly implement the IEP.
  4. This is key to the development and implementation of the IEP. Community-based instruction provides the opportunity to generalize the academic, social, and behavioral strategies in a real-world environment.

Question 10

Which of the following procedures should be addressed when developing and implementing the IEP objectives in instructional planning for students with disabilities?

  1. The IEP committee develops the IEP in isolation from any existing evaluation data.
  2. The IEP committee develops the IEP based on existing evaluative data from the general education teacher and related services personnel, current campus, district, and/or state assessments, and any evaluations and information provided by the parents.
  3. The IEP committee develops the IEP with input only from the general education teacher and parents.
  4. The ARD committee develops the IEP based on existing district and state assessment data.

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. Evaluation data provides important information on student performance.
  2. All relevant data from the stakeholders is important in the planning, development, and implementation of the IEP objectives to ensure student access, participation, and progress within the general education curriculum.
  3. Both the parents and teachers’ input are integral in the planning, development, and implementation of the IEP objectives, but they are not the only source of information.
  4. State and district data is only one set of data considered when planning, developing and implementing the IEP objectives.

Question 11

A parent attends an initial IEP committee meeting. After review and discussion of the evaluation, the parent disagrees with the results presented. All of the following are appropriate response from the IEP committee chairperson except:

  1. provide information regarding Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE) criteria
  2. offer information on how to obtain an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE)
  3. inquire why the parent disagrees with the evaluation
  4. inform the parent that they do not have the right to express their disagreement with a formal evaluation

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. The ARD committee chair is required to provide the IEE criteria information as noted in the Procedural Safeguards.
  2. The ARD committee chair is required to provide the IEE process as noted in the Procedural Safeguards.
  3. This is an opportunity to understand the parents’ concerns and review and clarify any misconceptions regarding the assessment data and the ARD process.
  4. Parents have the right to disagree. The Procedural Safeguards outline the process for parents who disagree with the evaluation.

Question 12

When the IEP committee determines that a student’s behavior is a manifestation of the student’s disability, the IEP committee must conduct or complete which of the following?

  1. an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE)
  2. a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  3. a Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)
  4. an Individual Educational Plan (IEP)

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. IEE refers to the educational evaluation independent of the LEA (Local Education Agency). This would not be the correct response to the determination made by the IEP committee.
  2. An FBA is necessary to evaluate how the behavior is impacting the student’s ability to function and learn. An FBA refers to a problem-solving framework to address student behavior, determine strategies to identify the reason for the behavior; review and consider the social, emotional, and cognitive factors of the behavior; and design interventions to address and redirect behavior. The special educator must be cognizant of the ethics, the LEA (Local Education Agency) policies, state and federal laws, and Procedural Safeguards relative to planning facilitating, and implementing discipline procedures for students with disabilities.
  3. The BIP would be developed if the FBA determines that the behaviors are impacting the student’s ability to learn in the least restrictive environment.
  4. The IEP must note the student’s present level of performance and the measurable annual goals including the LEA, district, and state assessments to determine and monitor progress within the general education curriculum as supported by the accommodations.

Question 13

Children may qualify for services through special education before entering school. What is the name of the plan designed for a child under 3 years old?

  1. Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
  2. Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  3. Early Childhood Intervention Plan (ECI)
  4. Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE)

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. An IFSP identifies a child’s needs and goals prior to entering school.
  2. An IEP is designed for school-aged individuals
  3. This is not a type of plan.
  4. An IEE is an evaluation done by an outside professional that may be used when determining eligibility.

Question 14

In order for a special education teacher to monitor IEP progress on reading goals like fluency and accuracy for a small group of fourth-grade students, which is the best assessment procedure?

  1. record each student’s accuracy and speed on a weekly graph
  2. create a reading portfolio that lists words read accurately monthly
  3. complete error analysis of students’ reading every 30 days
  4. perform an informal reading inventory every 30 days

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. This is the correct answer because a weekly basis is essential to providing feedback, evaluating a student’s progress so that the intervention can be adjusted if needed.
  2. This gives information but takes too long to be adjusted if needed.
  3. This gives information but takes too long to be adjusted if needed
  4. This gives information but takes too long to be adjusted if needed.

Question 15

Ms. Cooper uses think-pair-share as a way to evaluate progress and adapt instruction. Which type of assessment is this?

  1. guided practice
  2. summative assessment  
  3. formative assessment
  4. standardized achievement testing

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. Guided practice is a teaching strategy used to provide instruction not an evaluation of progress.
  2. Summative assessment is used to see if a student is making curriculum requirements.
  3. This is the correct answer because the formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievements of intended instructional outcomes.
  4. Standardized achievement testing compares student data to other students’ data in the same age group.

Question 16

The secondary teacher of students with learning disabilities has been teaching the students to use Cornell Notes in all of the content classes. The best benefit of this strategy would be which of the following?

  1. engages students in the lessons
  2. provides an opportunity for the students to write
  3. serves as an organizational tool for due dates and upcoming projects
  4. creates a study guide to use for the content classes’ tests

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. Student engagement in the lessons’ objectives compels the students to focus their attention and effort.
  2. The focus is on writing with a purpose.
  3. Cornell Notes do not provide a tool to organize one’s calendar
  4. The focus is on the students’ responsibility and higher order thinking skills: the synthesizing of the learning presented by targeting the main idea and summarizing the text. The student-generated questions and answers serve as a self-designed study guide.

Question 17

As the IEP committee designs the student’s plan, which statement best describes how the IEP correlates with the state assessment?

  1. The IEP is designed independently from the state assessment.
  2. The IEP is a living document and will evolve as the state assessment evolves.
  3. The IEP must be designed in close correlation with the state assessment.
  4. The IEP is designed solely on the individual students’ educational needs with no reference to the state assessment.

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. The key word is “independently.” The IEP objectives are designed with close correlation with the state assessment.
  2. Though the IEP may be modified based on the REED, it does not necessarily continue to evolve as the state assessment evolves.
  3. IDEA mandates student participation in state and district assessments. The instructional goals should be written based on each student’s present level of performance and provide the opportunity to access, participate, and progress within the general education curriculum.
  4. The key words are “no reference.” The IEP objectives are designed with close correlation with the state assessment.

Question 18

How should the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) be reflected in a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP)?

  1. The IEP objectives should try to align as closely as possible with the appropriate TEKS.
  2. The IEP objectives should match the TEKS without deviation except for legally required deviation.
  3. The IEP objectives should be developed without alignment to the TEKS.
  4. The TEKS can be a substitute for an IEP.

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. The IEP objectives should align with the corresponding TEKS so that they are appropriate for the student and based on what they are learning.
  2. The IEP objectives should align with the corresponding TEKS so that they are appropriate for the student and based on what they are learning.
  3. The IEP objectives should align with the corresponding TEKS so that they are appropriate for the student and based on what they are learning.
  4. The IEP objectives should align with the corresponding TEKS so that they are appropriate for the student and based on what they are learning.

Question 19

A new student just moved into a small town and qualifies for special education services because he is hard of hearing. He primarily communicates using sign language. The Local Education Agency (LEA) does not have a certified sign language interpreter, but they do have a certified special education teacher. What is the district required to do in this situation?

  1. immediately hire an interpreter
  2. hold an emergency IEP committee meeting to add a goal for the student to learn lip reading
  3. offer a fully written/visual curriculum
  4. provide support through the special education teacher

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. This is the correct answer because this is the student’s only way of fully accessing the curriculum.
  2. It is not required for a student that is hard of hearing to learn lip reading.
  3. While this would supplement the curriculum, it does not provide full access.
  4. The special education can provide support, but cannot meet all the needs of this student.

Question 20

A student with fine motor coordination and writing difficulties who receives in class support with the occupational therapist would benefit from what accommodation?

  1. directions simplified and repeated
  2. use of adaptive writing utensils
  3. special lighting
  4. separate setting

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. This is accommodation but not for fine motor difficulties.
  2. This is the correct answer because adaptive writing utensils, such as pen grips and weighted holders, are handwriting tools geared to help these children become more successful with writing tasks.
  3. This is accommodation but not for fine motor difficulties.
  4. This is accommodation but not for fine motor difficulties.

Question 21

A student with a learning disability needs help with mathematical computation skills. The special education teacher is planning to teach basic math skills and mathematical reasoning through software for reinforcement. This type of software would be valuable for the teacher’s purpose because of its ability to produce:

  1. fun visual graphics.
  2. instructional grouping profile.
  3. immediate feedback on answers.
  4. unlimited examples of different skills.

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. This is something software can provide but is not valuable for the teacher’s purpose.
  2. This is something software can provide but is not valuable for the teacher’s purpose.
  3. This is the correct answer because research has shown that using math software is an effective instructional strategy to use with students who have a specific learning disability in mathematics because it provides students immediate feedback that helps ensure that students are not learning facts incorrectly.
  4. This is something software can provide but is not valuable for the teacher’s purpose.

Question 22

A high school sophomore recently became deaf after an unfortunate accident. Since the accident, the student has hardly left his home and is becoming more and more socially reclusive because of the fear that his friends will become bored with his limited options for activities. Which of the following would be the special education teacher’s best response to this situation?

  1. Help the student learn Braille.
  2. Help the student explore home activities suited for deaf individuals that his friends and he can partake in.
  3. Encourage the student to begin socializing with other peers who are deaf.
  4. Ask the student what social activities he would like to partake in and work with him to develop the skill set.

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. Braille is used to assisting blind students, not deaf students.
  2. This could be an appropriate strategy at home, but it does not address the needs of the student at home.
  3. This could be an appropriate strategy, but encouraging the student might not be enough. The teacher should provide more direct guidance.
  4. The student will be more engaged in learning if they have input in how they are taught.

Question 23

In determining appropriate transition services for a specific student, the ARD committee must consider which of the following?

  1. the student’s preferences, interests, and strengths
  2. the student’s progress as compared to grade level peers
  3. the student’s instructional level
  4. the student’s related services

Correct Answer: A,C,D

Explanations:

  1. Who the student is as an individual should always be taken into consideration when considering transition services.
  2. The services that a student receives should be based on their own performance and not compared to the performance of others.
  3. Considering the level of instruction a student is receiving ensures the student’s success with the transition process and in the appropriate setting.
  4. Related services are a part of any transitional plan.

Question 24

Which of the following is not considered an appropriate placement for a student after transitioning from high school?

  1. college
  2. military
  3. trade School
  4. gap year

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. A 2 or 4-year school is an appropriate placement for an interested student that qualifies.
  2. The military is an appropriate placement for an interested student that qualifies.
  3. Trade school is an appropriate placement for an interested student that qualifies.
  4. Planning for a student to take a year off prior to college is not an appropriate placement. The transition team should plan for community service or job training during the year off.

Question 25

A local high school has a campus coffee shop where students can work. Three days a week, a special education class works a morning shift at the shop. They have a number of jobs assigned to them, including check-out, preparation, and maintenance. This program reinforces which of the following?

  1. career skills
  2. financial literacy
  3. academic performance
  4. social skills

Correct Answer: A,B,D

Explanations:

  1. Working at the cafe provides the students with hands-on learning experiences in the area of career skills.
  2. Cashiering and dealing with money can increase the students’ understanding of finances.
  3. While academic performance is important, it is not the primary focus of working in a cafe.
  4. The students will be interacting with their classmates and teachers in a positive and structured setting, acquiring basic social skills along the way.

Question 26

Which of the following strategies would be most effective for assimilating and training a student with a disability to be a product stocker at the school snack shop?

  1. Have another student work beside the student to mentor and model proper behavior.
  2. Have a list of tasks to be completed each day by the student.
  3. Have an in-depth training on the duties of the job and provide a list of tasks for the student to complete.
  4. Train the student in a classroom setting before the student begins work.

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. Learning through mentoring and modeling is the most effective way for students with disabilities to effectively learn new skills.
  2. This method could be used, but it is not the most effective. A list of tasks can be difficult to complete depending on the length and student’s ability.
  3. This method could be used, but it is not the most effective. Most students with disabilities need repetition in training and one in-depth session will not be sufficient.
  4. This method could be used, but it is not the most effective. Real-world experiences enhance and reinforce skills learned in the classroom.

Question 27

A transition plan must be addressed in the IEP during an annual committee meeting when the student reaches which age?

  1. 12
  2. 10
  3. 18
  4. 16

Correct Answer: 4

Explanations:

  1. Twelve is a great opportunity to begin discussions about the student’s goals and interests. It is not required to design a transition plan.
  2. Ten is a great opportunity to begin discussions about the student’s goals and interests. It is not required to design a transition plan.
  3. A transition plan must be addressed when a student reaches the age of 16.
  4. A transition plan must be addressed when a student reaches the age of 16. The special education teacher implements the procedures needed to facilitate the transition process.

Question 28

Which of the following elements of a lesson plan is most beneficial for Ms. Jackson to use for her ADHD students on an instructional objective related to avoidance behaviors?

  1. guided practice
  2. anticipatory set
  3. modeling
  4. evaluation

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. This occurs later in the lesson after avoidance behaviors have begun.
  2. This is the correct answer because the anticipatory set occurs at the beginning to engage the students in the topic which is when avoidance behaviors occur.
  3. This occurs later in the lesson after avoidance behaviors have begun.
  4. This occurs later in the lesson after avoidance behaviors have begun.

Question 29

A special education teacher has been working with her students to use the textbook’s glossary to find the meanings of unknown words during instructional reading. Which of the following is the greatest benefit to this approach?

  1. promotes the development of critical thinking skills
  2. allows the special education teacher to spend more time addressing the needs of other students
  3. allows students to take active control of their learning process
  4. allows students to relate new information to prior knowledge

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. Using a glossary is an important skill, but it does not require critical thinking.
  2. The teacher’s motivation for making the students more independent should not be to spend that time elsewhere.
  3. By teaching the students how to use the glossary, the teacher is providing the students with a life-long skill that they can use independently in the future to assist with their own learning.
  4. Relating new information to prior knowledge is an important skill, but not one that pertains to using a glossary.

Question 30

Michael is a student with a disability who is having a hard time identifying the differences between nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. His teacher works with him every day on grammar skills. The teacher gives Michael 40 words and asks him to classify them as nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. On Monday, Michael successfully identified 10 words, Tuesday he successfully identified 8 words, Wednesday he successfully identified 12 words, and Thursday he successfully identified 11 words. Which of the following steps should the teacher consider as the next step in Michael’s instruction?

  1. Begin implementing a different instructional method to address Michael’s needs.
  2. Repeat the same activity with Michael on Friday to identify areas of improvement.
  3. State the classification of each word before Michael attempts to identify the word.
  4. Reward Michael every time he correctly identifies a word.

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. Michael’s erratic performance on the homework implies that he is not learning given the current instructional method. It is best that the teacher tries a different instructional method to convey the same concept in a different manner to Michael.
  2. This is not the best option. Michael has demonstrated no evidence of learning in the previous four instructions, and there is no reason that he would benefit further from the same instruction.
  3. This is giving Michael the answer before he is required to provide one. This is not the best option.
  4. If Michael is not learning, the rewarding him will not effect change. Michael needs a change in instruction, not a change in motivation to learn.

Question 31

The state and the Local Education Agency (LEA) require all special education staff and designated administrators to participate in nonviolent crisis intervention training to provide for all of the following except:

  1. the safety and welfare of the student
  2. on-campus security
  3. the safety and welfare of the staff
  4. a safe and orderly classroom and campus environment

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. The LEA is responsible for the safety and welfare of the students and staff as well as creating and ensuring a safe and orderly environment conducive to the teaching and learning process.
  2. On-campus security is not an expectation for special education staff.
  3. The LEA is responsible for the safety and welfare of the students and staff as well as creating and ensuring a safe and orderly environment conducive to the teaching and learning process.
  4. The LEA is responsible for the safety and welfare of the students and staff as well as creating and ensuring a safe and orderly environment conducive to the teaching and learning process.

Question 32

Ali, a sixth-grade student with learning disabilities, has exhibited some aggressive behaviors. The teacher observed her yelling and pushing her classmates when working in collaborative groups. The teacher consulted with the special education teacher. What is the best response that the special education teacher can recommend?

  1. isolate the student from the collaborative groups
  2. redirect the behaviors by assigning collaborative group roles specifically for the student and coach the student with specific responses when working in collaborative groups
  3. spend more one-on-one time with the student to prevent the behavior in the future
  4. convene an IEP meeting immediately

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. Isolation is a temporary solution and punitive in nature.
  2. Specific collaborative group roles will provide the opportunity for active participation. Coaching strategies will provide the student with appropriate problem-solving skills that are paramount to her success with collaborative group learning experiences.
  3. The teacher cannot always realistically sacrifice valuable time on a particular student just to prevent behavior, even if that student has special needs. This is not fair to the teacher, the student, or the rest of the class.
  4. Convening an IEP meeting may not be the best response to address the current situation. The behaviors need to be addressed immediately and thoroughly.

Question 33

When should an IEP committee consider positive behavior interventions?

  1. at all times
  2. when behavior interferes with the learning process
  3. at the request of the parent
  4. during an assessment period

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. Implementing and reinforcing positive behavior interventions 24/7 may not be necessary and relevant for all students in all situations.
  2. PBI must be considered and addressed in the ARD committee meeting when the academic performance is impacted by the student’s behaviors.
  3. Parental input is important to student academic and behavior performance. The ARD committee should consider all factors.
  4. The LEA and state assessments are important to student academic performance and may impact student behavior. All factors should be considered.

Question 34

When were public schools first required to provide a free education to all students, regardless of disability?

  1. 1920s when public education was mandated by all states
  2. 1950s when schools were racially desegregated
  3. 1970s when the Education of all Handicapped Children Act was signed into law
  4. 1990s when the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was signed into law

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. These laws were enacted on a state-by-state basis and required public schools be available to able-bodied and able-minded students.
  2. This law was a federal law that desegregated schools based on race.
  3. This was the first law that required public schools provide education for students with disabilities.
  4. This law furthered education for students with disabilities.

Question 35

The following description refers to which special education legislation:

A nationwide law that ensures services for students with disabilities. It governs how the state and schools provide early interventions, special education, and related services for three to twenty-one-year-old students with disabilities.

  1. Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act
  2. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
  3. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
  4. No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. This is a law that specifically prohibits discrimination against students with disabilities.
  2. This is a law that refers to access of confidential student information.
  3. This description matches the guidelines of IDEA.
  4. This is a law that impacts assessment and achievement for schools nationwide. It does not specifically and solely address the educational needs of students with disabilities.

Question 36

The reauthorization of IDEA in 2004 brought about which of the following?

  1. increased accountability for students with disabilities to participate in state and local assessments
  2. decreased need for state and local involvement in special education student assessments
  3. increased authority of the IEP committee
  4. increased high school graduation rates for students with disabilities

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. IDEA ensures that students with disabilities are provided with access, participation, and progress within the general education curriculum to the maximum extent possible to receive educational benefits with students without disabilities. To ensure that schools were held to this standard, the reauthorization of IDEA in 2004 increased accountability for schools to include special education students in as many general education activities as possible.
  2. The reauthorization of IDEA did not decrease the need for state involvement in special education student assessments.
  3. The authority of the IEP committee was not impacted by the reauthorization of IDEA in 2004.
  4. The reauthorization of IDEA in 2004 did not directly bring about increased graduation rates for students with disabilities.

Question 37

In working with a parent and her advocate, the IEP committee was asked to define “consent.” How best should the IEP committee respond? Consent is:

  1. a verbal agreement between the parent and the campus to implement the IEP.
  2. a written agreement in the home language to approve the ARD minutes.
  3. a written agreement in the home language to implement the IEP; it is voluntary and can be withdrawn at any time.
  4. a verbal agreement to attend and participate in the ARD meeting.

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. The parent must sign an agreement to implement the IEP.
  2. The IEP minutes are approved and accepted with the required signatures signifying agreement by all the committee members.
  3. This requirement is outlined to ensure FAPE.
  4. All agreements are to be written, therefore a verbal agreement would not suffice in this or any circumstance.

Question 38

The following characteristics are elements of which component of IDEA?

  • Instructional services designed to address the educational needs of students with disabilities as comparable to nondisabled students
  • Instructional services to the maximum extent possible as to meet the educational needs with nondisabled students
  • Standardized and established due process procedures
  • Evaluation, placement, and reevaluation established procedures to ensure appropriate placement and classification of a student with disabilities
  1. Least Restrive Environment (LRE)
  2. Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
  3. No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
  4. Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)

Correct Answer: 2

Explanations:

  1. LRE is a part of IDEA, but refers to the expectation that students with disabilities spend as much time in the general education setting as possible.
  2. All of the characteristics included in the question describe FAPE.
  3. NCLB is a law that focuses on assessment and accountability.
  4. IFSP is also a part of IDEA, but specifically focuses on families rather than individual students.

Question 39

A student who uses a wheelchair and needs healthcare services related to a breathing machine is enrolled in special education services. He is considered medically fragile and requires nursing care 24 hours a day. The school would like to share the cost of the nurse with the family. How the cost be legally shared?

  1. The school can work with the insurance company to share costs, but there cannot be a cost to the family.
  2. The school covers the same percentage amount as the family’s insurance company.
  3. The school requires the family to apply for Medicaid services in order to share costs with another state fund.
  4. The school can share costs with the family if it allows them to select the nurse who provides services.

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. There cannot be a cost to a family for a child to receive an education.
  2. The school can share costs with the insurance company, but not at a cost to the family.
  3. Families cannot be required to apply for state assistance.
  4. The family is not allowed to make personnel decisions for a public school district.

Question 40

A parent expresses a concern to the special education teacher regarding the instructional delivery strategies and the accommodations noted in the IEP for her child’s ELA class. How best should the special education teacher respond to the parent?

  1. Refer the parent to the campus administration
  2. Inform the parent to request an IEP meeting
  3. Recommend that the parent schedule a parent conference with the teacher
  4. Instruct the parent to contact the Office of Civil Rights with her complaint

Correct Answer: 3

Explanations:

  1. The campus administrator should be informed of all potential violations of FAPE. However, it may not be the appropriate next step.
  2. A parent has the right to convene an IEP at a mutually agreed upon time. However, it may not be the appropriate next step.
  3. The focus here is on collaboration and to come to a mutually agreed upon solution to ensure FAPE. As the special education teacher, it is her job to facilitate the collaborative and consultative functions and responsibilities of special and general education campus and district staff to include students with disabilities in the general education learning environments.
  4. A parent has the right to contact the Office of Civil Rights. However, it may not be the appropriate next step.
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