This section tests your knowledge on grammar, vocabulary, parts of speech, and the use of figurative language.
Let’s discuss some concepts that will more than likely appear on the test.
Parts of Speech
The different parts of speech include: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. Each part of speech is described below.
Noun – A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun is a crucial part of a sentence because it tells who or what the sentence is about. A noun can be a common noun (a general word for something) or a proper noun (a specific name for something). Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. Examples of nouns include: boy, house, Jane, dog, pencil, Walmart.
Pronoun – A pronoun takes the place of a noun to avoid repetitive sentences. Examples of pronouns include: I, he, they, her, it, them.
Adjective – An adjective is a describing word. It is used to describe a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are helpful when a student is adding more detail and description to their writing. Examples of adjectives include: happy, large, beautiful, quiet, bumpy.
Verbs – Verbs are “action words” and are the main part of the predicate of a sentence. Verbs tell what the subject is doing or did. Examples of verbs include: jumped, run, draw, played.
Adverbs – Adverbs give more detail about a verb or adjective. Adverbs often tell how the subject did something. For example, in the sentence, “He ran quickly,” quickly is the adverb. Adverbs often end in -ly, but they do not have to. Examples of adverbs include: loudly, very, happily.
Prepositions – Prepositions are words that tell where or when something happens in relation to something else. In the sentence, “The boy is in the chair,” in is the preposition. Other prepositions include: beside, under, after.
Conjunctions – Conjunctions are words that are used to connect parts of a sentence or connect two sentences together. In the sentence, “She went to the store and bought milk,” and is the conjunction. Other conjunctions include: but, or, yet, so.
Figurative language is when words are used in a way that is different from their normal definition or use. Figurative language is used to make writing more interesting and descriptive. It includes similes, metaphors, onomatopoeia, hyperboles, and idioms.
- A simile is when one thing is compared to another by using the word “like” or “as.” An example of a simile is: “Her eyes were as bright as the stars.”
- A metaphor compares two things by stating that one thing is another. An example is: “Her eyes are stars.”
- An onomatopoeia is a word that is written to imitate a sound. Examples of onomatopoeia include: buzz, bark, plop.
- A hyperbole is an extreme exaggeration. An example is: “She was so hungry she could eat a horse.”
- An idiom is a phrase that has a meaning unrelated to the literal meaning of the words. Idioms can be difficult for English language learners or for students who have not been exposed to idioms in everyday conversation. Examples of idioms include: “I’m all ears,” and “It’s raining cats and dogs!”
3 Tiers of Vocabulary
The 3 tiers of vocabulary refers to different types of words and how often or in what manner they are used in oral language and in text.
Tier I words are words that are used in everyday language and conversation. These words generally do not need to be explicitly taught to students, because most children will already know the meaning of these words. Examples of Tier I words are: girl, book, play.
Tier II words are words seen frequently in text but are not used as often in everyday conversation. These words usually need to be taught to students, but after learning the meaning, they will be able to apply it to multiple texts or concepts. Examples of Tier II words are: analyze, evidence, infer.
Tier III words are academic words that are not used very often and typically only apply to specific topics. These words are often defined in a book’s glossary or the meaning is explained in the book. Examples of Tier III words are: exponent, ozone, constitution.