FTCE Physical Education K-12 Ultimate Guide2019-12-09T19:13:50+00:00

FTCE Physical Education K-12: Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

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FTCE Physical Education K-12

FTCE Physical Education K-12 Quick Facts

The FTCE Physical Education K-12 assessment is a requirement to become a PE teacher in the state of Florida. The test assesses a person’s general and content-specific teaching skills.

Cost:

$150

Scoring:

A scaled score of at least 200 is needed to pass, which on a scaled test is approximately 70%. Since this test has approximately 120 questions, you will need to answer approximately 85 questions correctly to pass.

Pass rate:

47% of first-time test takers (753) passed in 2018.

Study time:

In order to feel prepared for the test, plan to spend several weeks preparing. It is helpful to create a schedule for yourself ahead of time by breaking down the test topics into different weeks. This way, you will know you have enough time to study each topic covered on the test.

What test takers wish they would’ve known:

  • Watch for questions that include the words, “not or except,” which indicates that you need to choose the answer choice that does not apply.
  • Keep an eye on the time and make sure you are able to complete the test in the 2.5 hour time frame.
  • It is better to guess on a question you don’t know the answer to than to leave it unanswered.

Information and screenshots obtained from: http://www.fl.nesinc.com/studyguide/FL_SG_obj_063.htm

Exam Content

Overview

This exam has 13 competencies:

  • History and Philosophy of the Profession (3%)
  • Standards-Based Curriculum Development (10%)
  • Instructional Strategies (13%)
  • Human Growth, Development, and Motor Learning (8%)
  • Movement Skills and Concepts (12%)
  • Lifetime Health, Wellness, and Physical Fitness (12%)
  • Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Development (7%)
  • Assessment Strategies (10%)
  • Strategies for an Effective Learning Environment (7%)
  • Laws, Legislation, and Liabilities (4%)
  • Safety Considerations, Rules, Strategies, and Terminology (5%)
  • Ethics, Advocacy, and Development (4%)
  • Technology (5%)

So, let’s talk about History and Philosophy of the Profession first.

History and Philosophy of the Profession

This competency includes about 4 multiple-choice questions which make up about 3% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of history and philosophy of the PE profession.

Let’s talk about a concept that you will more than likely see on the test.

Fair Play

The idea of fair play began in England when middle and upper-class Englishmen began to organize sport (rugby) at boarding schools. The concept has spread across sports today. It has become an ideal for not just playing sports, but also living life. The fair play ideal promotes tolerance, respect for others, and the importance of teamwork in all aspects of life. The ideal is very important in physical education because children have a safe place to learn and practice showing others respect while working together to accomplish a task. This skill is invaluable and will be used throughout their entire lives.  

Standards-Based Curriculum Development

This competency includes about 12 multiple-choice questions which make up about 10% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of standards-based curriculum development, including models, factors, and use of guiding documents.

Let’s talk about some concepts that you will plausibly see on the test.

Peer Teaching Model

The peer teaching model is a research-based instructional strategy that transfers much of the teaching responsibility from the teacher to the students. This strategy is very effective because the highest from of learning is teaching, and if a student teaches another student they are demonstrating mastery. This model is best used for a topic with which students have some background knowledge. It is also great for review.

A peer teaching scenario in a PE class might look like:

  • The teacher presents a short whole group lesson over nutrition.  
  • Students are then paired or put into groups and tasked with reading additional information about the topic.
  • Students are then tasked with teaching their partner or group about the topic. The teacher would provide an outline or specific questions for the students to focus on, but the students are instructing other students.
  • The teacher is listening carefully for any misconceptions students have as they are teaching and correcting as needed.
  • Students will be assessed individually once they have had a sufficient amount of time to learn, teach, and master the content.

Cross-Curricular Links

Connecting learning across all subjects during physical education helps students make connections in and out of the physical education classroom. Examples of cross-curricular links in PE:

  • ELA- asking students to write and reflect on their activities, completing sports reports, communicating with group members
  • Math- taking measurements, keeping scores, problem-solving
  • Science- making connections between physics and sports (force and motion), as well as how the human body works to perform different tasks

Instructional Strategies

This competency includes about 16 multiple-choice questions which make up about 13% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of physical education instructional strategies, including those that address diverse needs and enhance student learning. 

Let’s talk about some concepts that you will likely see on the test.

Attribution Motivational Theory

The attribution theory is a concept in sports psychology that helps coaches (and PE teachers) understand to what athletes attribute their failures and successes. The mindset of the athlete has a direct impact on growth and motivation. For example, a professional athlete might attribute his win in a big game to his determination, work ethic, and perseverance. However, an amateur player who is very out of shape might consider any success they had as luck. When PE teachers understand where student-athletes attribute their success or failure, it is much easier to guide them to success. Student-athletes will believe that their success or failure is due to either internal factors that are within their control or external factors that are outside of their control.  

It is important that teachers and coaches continually motivate and encourage students with expressions such as, “You worked really hard in PE class today” or, “You are doing a great job working through your frustrations.” Those types of statements help students understand they reached their goals not because of luck, but because they are working hard. The two main things to remember as a PE teacher are to:

  • Make students feel successful
  • Help students take ownership of their successes

Station Teaching

Station teaching is a great way to teach and use multiple exercises or activities while all students are engaged in learning. Station teaching is used as an alternative to whole-group instruction. Most teachers create a minimum of three stations in the gym with a different activity at each station and then divide students equally among the stations. Each group is given an equal amount of time at each station. Once their time is up, the groups rotate to the next station.  Station teaching can enhance student learning by:

  • Keeping students actively engaged
  • Targeting multiple muscle groups
  • Continually offering various activities
  • Creating smaller and more manageable groups

Human Growth, Development, and Motor Learning

This competency includes about 10 multiple-choice questions which make up about 8% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of human growth, development, and motor learning.

Let’s look at some concepts that are likely to pop up on the test.

Affective Development

Affective development refers to how children develop their emotions, as well as their outward expression of those emotions. This development begins in infancy and continues through adolescence. There are specific skills of emotional competence that teachers should work to support:

  • The awareness of personal emotions
  • The ability to understand others’ emotions
  • The ability to use words to describe emotions
  • Being able to show empathy and sympathy to others
  • The ability to cope with adverse emotions

Adults can create a learning environment that supports affective development by:

  • Providing positive guidance whenever possible
  • Modeling appropriate responses
  • Being sensitive to the needs of each student
  • Creating a safe space for children to take risks while knowing they are supported.
  • Explain and correct undesired behaviors so the child consider the viewpoints of others

Fine Motor Development

Fine motor skills are the coordination of small muscles that are controlled by the nervous system. They usually involve the coordination between the hands and fingers with the eyes. These skills begin developing at birth and continue as children grow. Major milestones in fine motor development begin with a baby tracking movement with his or her eyes, and advance by three years old to cutting paper with scissors, building towers with blocks, and writing the alphabet and numbers.  Refer to this chart to see a detailed list of which skills should be acquired by which age in children.  

There are ways to encourage the development of fine motor skills:

  • Encourage stacking
  • Allow small children to dump and fill containers
  • Teach and find ways to utilize the pincer grasp
  • Encourage creativity
  • Be patient while the child learns to work with different tools and utensils
  • Build on basic skills once they’ve been mastered

Movement Skills and Concepts

This competency includes about 14 multiple-choice questions which make up about 12% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of movement skills and concepts, including fundamental movement patterns and sequentially progressive activities.

Here are some concepts that are likely to be part of the test.

Skill-Related Fitness

There are six skill-related fitness components:

  • Agility is the ability to control and change the direction of the body while keeping a constant and rapid motion. Example- changing directions to avoid being pegged by a ball
  • Balance is the ability to control the body when standing still or moving.  Example- walking on a balance beam
  • Coordination is the ability to use multiple senses together with parts of the body while moving. Example- running while dribbling a soccer ball
  • Speed is the ability to move the body quickly. Example- a baseball player using his speed to make it to home plate before the center fielder has a chance to throw the ball to the catcher
  • Power is the ability to move the body quickly while using the maximum force of the muscles. Example- a football player who pushes their way through other players and makes a breakaway for a touchdown
  • Reaction time is the ability to react quickly to what is seen, heard, or felt.  Example- a track runner who starts running as soon as the starter gun goes off

Non-locomotor Skills

Non-locomotor movements do not require the body to move through space.  Non-locomotor movements and skills can be performed while standing, lying, sitting, or kneeling. Many weight lifting exercises and stretches are non-locomotor skills. Non-locomotor skills are foundational for more advanced movements in dance, sports, and games.  

Non-locomotor skills are important because they increase:

  • Flexibility
  • Spatial awareness
  • Coordination

Non-locomotor skills include:

  • Stretching
  • Bending
  • Pushing
  • Pulling
  • Twisting
  • Swaying
  • Balancing
  • Logrolling

Lifetime Health, Wellness, and Physical Fitness

This competency includes about 14 multiple-choice questions which make up about 12% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of lifetime health, wellness, and physical fitness, including identification of health risks and benefits of exercise.

Let’s talk about some concepts that are likely to be on the test.

Development of Strength in the Arms

There are many exercises that target the development of arm strength, but three that are commonly used are:

  • Front curls–  This exercise targets the bicep muscle and can be done with a barbell or individual dumbbell weights. Begin the exercise by standing upright, holding the weight or weights shoulder-width apart with palms facing the body. While keeping the upper part of the arms stationary against the body, curl the weight forward using the bicep muscles. Stop once the weight is at shoulder level, then slowly bring the bar back to starting position.
  • Overhead press– Also known as a bench press, this exercise targets not only the arms, but also the shoulders, back, and chest. Begin the exercise by lying flat on a bench. Then reach up to grasp the bar while making sure hands are shoulder width apart. Lift the bar from the rack and begin slowly lowering it towards the chest. Once the bar touches the chest, begin to push the bar back up until the arms are straight. Then repeat.
  • Tricep extensions– This exercise targets the tricep muscle. Begin the exercise while standing with feet hip width apart. Hold a dumbbell in each hand with palms facing the opposite way of the body. Bend the knees and lean forward so that the chest is almost parallel to the floor. Bend the elbows 90 degrees and extend the arms backwards.  

Health-Related Fitness

There are five components to health-related fitness:

  • Cardiovascular endurance is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time. This requires healthy lungs, a strong heart, and clear blood vessels to supply oxygen to the body.  
  • Muscular strength is the amount of force that muscles can produce.  Most often this is measured by how much weight can be lifted.
  • Muscular endurance is the ability to use muscles many times without getting tired.
  • Flexibility is the ability to fully use joints. The more flexible a person is, the more free the joints are to allow movement.
  • Body composition is the percentage of body weight that is fat compared to other tissue, such as bone and muscle. The goal is to have a higher percentage of muscle and bone to fat. Usually body composition is calculated using the body mass index (BMI) which uses height and weight.

Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Development

This competency includes about 8 multiple-choice questions which make up about 7% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of cognitive, social, and emotional development, including identifying the role that physical activity plays in responsible behavior and psychological benefits.

Let’s talk about a concept that is likely to be on the test.

Psychological Benefits of Physical Activities

There are many psychological benefits for students participating in physical activities.  Benefits include:

  • Pride in accomplishing something physical
  • Reduced stress
  • Ability to cope with stress
  • Improved mood
  • Greater self-esteem
  • Higher energy level and focus
  • Improved body image
  • Greater self-satisfaction

The benefits from physical activity translate directly into the academic classroom and create a well-rounded student.

Assessment Strategies

This competency includes about 12 multiple-choice questions which make up about 10% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of selecting and implementing appropriate assessment strategies in physical education.

Check out these concepts.

Skinfold Calipers

Skinfold calipers are essentially tongs that are used to measure the thickness of skin on the body to estimate the amount of body fat a person has. It is important to measure body fat because excess fat on the body can lead to long term health problems. Excess fat is linked to heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer.

Establishing Individual Fitness Goals

Setting fitness goals for students is an important part of physical education. Before setting fitness goals, it is important for students to understand where they want to be and where they are currently. Students should understand the components of fitness, including cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and body composition. To do this:

  1. Assess the student’s current fitness levels. Make sure students know their fitness levels do not determine their grade.
  2. Set SMART goals for each student.  SMART goals are:
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Relevant
  • Time-bound

For example:

  • Specific– The goal should be clear and easy to understand. “I will lose weight.”
  • Measurable– Add a number to the goal so that it is measurable and trackable. “I will lose ten pounds.”
  • Attainable– Help students be realistic when setting goals.
  • Relevant– The goal should be important to the student at that time in their life.  
  • Time-bound– Include a deadline to reach the goal.  That helps students to be motivated to begin.
  1.  Come up with a plan and specific steps that the student will take to reach the goal.

Strategies for an Effective Learning Environment

This competency includes about 8 multiple-choice questions which make up about 7% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of strategies for an effective learning environment, including facilities, organizational strategies, behavior management, and injury prevention and care.

Let’s talk about a concept that is likely to be on the test.

Head Injuries

A concussion is a type of brain injury that can result from impact to the head or body. Advances in brain research and studies on the serious long term effects of concussions have led to an increase of media attention and public health campaigns that call for more guidelines to keep students safe.

The most common guideline in concussion legislation and regulation is “when in doubt, sit them out.” If a PE professional suspects that a student has sustained a head injury, the first action should be to immediately make the student sit out.  Florida law requires that a student who has a suspected head injury sit out for 24 hours and must be cleared by any medical provider who has been trained in concussion management. It is also important to note that in Florida, concussion legislation only applies to public middle and high schools, not private or elementary schools.  

Laws, Legislation, and Liabilities

This competency includes about 5 multiple-choice questions which make up about 4% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of physical education laws, legislation, and liabilities.  

You need to know this concept.

Every Student Succeeds Act

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was passed by Congress in 2015 and is a replacement piece of legislation to No Child Left Behind. Under the No Child Left Behind policy, PE and health classes suffered due to the emphasis put on reading, writing, and math education. The goal of ESSA is to shift that focus to a more well-rounded education for every student, which includes physical education. ESSA allows for government funding in schools to be spent differently, with a greater emphasis and allowance for PE spending along with other subjects.

Safety Considerations, Rules, Strategies, and Terminology

This competency includes about 6 multiple-choice questions which make up about 5% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of safety considerations, rules, strategies, and terminology pertaining to physical activities.

Let’s talk about a concept that is likely to be on the test.

Soccer Terminology

Many students play soccer either recreationally or for a team because all that is needed to play is a ball and open space. Soccer is also a sport that requires many different skills and uses various physical fitness components.

Basic Soccer Terminology:

  • Goalkeeper– Defends the goal and is the only player allowed to touch the ball with their hands
  • Goal lines– Lines that run from corner flag to corner flag and mark the end of the playing field
  • Goal kick– A free kick taken within the goalkeeper’s box when an attacking team kicks the ball out on the goal line
  • Corner kick– A free kick taken by the attacking team if a defender is the last player to touch a ball that goes out over the goal line
  • Direct free kick– Given to a player who was kicked, tripped, held, or pushed. The kick is taken from the spot of the personal foul and may be kicked directly at the goal without having to touch another player.
  • Indirect free kick– Given to a player when a more minor infraction happens, and for a goal to be scored, the ball must touch at least one other player
  • Goal– When points are scored in soccer it is called a goal. For a goal to count, the ball must cross the goal line completely. Each goal counts as one point.
  • Goals– There is a goal in the center of the goal line on each side of the field. Regulation goals have corner posts 24 feet apart and a crossbar 8 feet high.
  • Handball– A penalty called when any player other than the goalie touches the ball with any part of their arm or hand. Play stops and the opposing team is given a direct free kick from the spot of the infraction.
  • Referee– The only on field official who controls the game and enforces the rules
  • Linesman– Assists the referee by running up and down the sidelines watching for penalties (such as offsides) and awards possession for throw ins
  • Offside– This is a penalty that is called when an attacking player passes the ball to a teammate without a defender between the teammate and the goal.
  • Penalty kick– Given to any team for personal fouls within the penalty area (goal box).  A penalty shot is taken from a specific spot which is 12 yards directly in front of the center of the goal. The only defender allowed to attempt to stop the shot is the goalkeeper.
  • Throw in– A method to return the ball to play if it goes out of bounds on either sideline. A throw in must start with the ball completely behind the player’s head and both of the player’s feet must be on the ground when the ball is released.
  • Yellow card– Given to a player who commits a serious or dangerous personal foul. If a player is given two yellow cards in one game, that player is ejected from the game and can not be replaced on the field.
  • Red card– The most serious infraction that can occur during a game and is given when the play is intentionally dangerous. Any player who receives a red card is immediately ejected from the game and can not be replaced on the field.

Ethics, Advocacy, and Development

This competency includes about 5 multiple-choice questions which make up about 4% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of ethics, advocacy, and professional development in physical education.

This concept is super likely to be on the test.

Florida Society of Health and Physical Educators

The Florida Society of Health and Physical Educators, also known as SHAPE Florida, is a professional organization that college students pursuing PE certification, current PE teachers, and required PE teachers can join for a minimal fee. SHAPE is an excellent resource for professional physical educators because the organization provides:

  • Professional development opportunities
  • Detailed information on state and national PE standards
  • Advocacy and media for physical education
  • Resources
  • $1,000,000 of liability insurance for professional members

Technology

This competency includes about 6 multiple-choice questions which make up about 5% of the entire exam.

This section tests your knowledge of using technology to enhance physical education.

Check out this concept.

Using Technology to Assess Students

Educators in any classroom are encouraged to incorporate technology into lessons and assessments whenever possible because many times students are much more engaged and motivated when technology is involved. A PE classroom might have fewer options for technology, but there are still a few, especially when it comes to assessment. A PE teacher could assess students using technology by:

  • Having students film themselves performing a specific exercise, game, etc. and then upload and share it with the teacher
  • Having students use specific apps like MyFitnessPal or other fitness trackers to see if students are meeting their fitness goals
  • Asking students to create a report on a unit of study using various forms of media and presenting it

And that’s some basic info about the FTCE Physical Education K-12 exam.

Exam Content Practice Test

Question 1

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of exercise?

  1. Higher fat insulation and storage
  2. Increased blood flow to muscles
  3. Improved cardiovascular health
  4. Higher daily caloric consumption

Correct Answer:  1

Explanation: Higher fat levels result in increased insulation and fat storage. Exercise will typically reduce fat storage.

Question 2

Which of the following best describes an average four-year-old’s ability to walk?

  1. Their walking is choppy and uncoordinated
  2. Their walking is automatic and has an adult style
  3. Their walking is characterized by large, high steps and they tend to have one foot firmly on the ground
  4. Their walking still needs to be stabilized by an adult

Correct Answer:  2

Explanation: This is the best answer. By age four, a child’s walking ability should be fluid and mimic the walking style of an adult. All other answer choices describe an infant’s walking style.

Question 3

Which of the following best describes the purpose of a health education program in a school?

  1. To protect the health of the student body
  2. To educate students on how to make healthy choices
  3. To facilitate the education on topics such as sex, vaccinations, and abuse
  4. To meet state-required educational goals

Correct Answer:  2

Explanations:

  1. The purpose of the health program is not to protect the health of the student body, but to educate and emphasize the importance of making healthy decisions. The school is not logistically able to completely protect the health of the student body.
  2. The purpose of health education programs is to equip students to make healthy decisions in all aspects of their lives. The way health education programs do this is by highlighting the consequences of unhealthy decisions and discussing how to decide what decision is the best option; this is accomplished through educating the students on various topics.
  3. Facilitating education on relevant topics is how the purpose of the health education program is accomplished. The purpose is to encourage students to make healthy decisions through education; the purpose is not solely education.
  4. Meeting state goals might be the cause of a health education program, but it is not the purpose.

Question 4

In schools across the United States, there has been an increased awareness of health and fitness related issues, especially regarding proper diet and nutrition for adolescents. Which of the following has this increased awareness led to?

  1. An increased emphasis on promoting individuals’ lifelong participation in physical activity and exercises
  2. An increased emphasis on traditional physical activities in physical education classes
  3. A widespread belief that physical education and nutrition knowledge should be incorporated into standardized testing
  4. An increase in the amount of time students are required to spend each day in physical education classes

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. This is the best answer. As obesity among adolescents in increasing and the desire for children to have a greater knowledge of exercise and nutrition, physical education classes are trying to promoting lifelong participation in physical activities. This has led to a decrease in traditional P.E. exercises and an increase in more “fun” physical activities to show kids that physical activity can be enjoyable.
  2. As obesity among adolescents is increasing and more of a desire for children to have a greater knowledge of exercise and nutrition, physical education classes are trying to promoting lifelong participation in physical activities. This has led to a decrease in traditional P.E. exercises and an increase in more “fun” physical activities to show kids that physical activity can be enjoyable.
  3. Standardized testing for physical education and nutrition knowledge is not a widespread belief.
  4. There has not been a widespread increase in the amount of time required by students to spend in P.E. classes.

Question 5

Carbohydrates are most useful for the:

  1. replenishing stomach lining.
  2. building of muscle.
  3. absorption of nutrients by cells.
  4. conversion of starches and sugars to glucose.

Correct Answer:  4

Explanations:

  1. The stomach lining replenishes itself. Carbohydrates do not play a direct role.
  2. Building muscle is the main use of proteins.
  3. Fats help in the absorption of nutrients.
  4. This is the main use of carbohydrates.

Question 6

Mrs. Gruntle is planning a health unit on substance abuse. Before beginning the unit, Mrs. Gruntle prepares a pretest to give the students. Which of the following is the most important advantage of the pretest?

  1. The pretest will encourage students to investigate what misconceptions they have about substance abuse
  2. The pretest will help Mrs. Gruntle recognize misconceptions students have about substance abuse
  3. The pretest will alert students to the serious nature of the unit topic
  4. The pretest will increase the students’ desire to learn about substance abuse

Correct Answer:  2

Explanations:

  1. The pretest will not encourage students to investigate any misconceptions they might have because it is not clear if the students will receive feedback on the exam. Without feedback, the students are not aware they have misconceptions about substance abuse.
  2. Many students develop misconceptions about substance abuse. To best educate the students on the effects of substance abuse, Mrs. Gruntle will need to know what misconceptions the students have, so they can be adequately addressed. The pretest will allow Mrs. Gruntle to identify various misconceptions the students have and this will allow her to develop instructional activities to correct misconceptions and develop a correct view of substance abuse among her students.
  3. Pretests are common in education to create a benchmark of student knowledge and identify weak areas. Because they are common, it is highly unlikely a pretest would convey the serious nature of the topic.
  4. There is no indication a pretest would spark the students’ interest in the topic.

Question 7

Mr. Alberts is an elementary physical education teacher. For an activity, he writes various letters on large poster boards and has his class stand in a line perpendicular to him. He holds up a poster board with a letter and the students think of a way to shape their body to mimic the shape of the letter. This activity is most likely to promote the students’ physical development in which of the following areas?

  1. Muscle memory
  2. Eye-foot coordination
  3. Tactile awareness
  4. Body awareness

Correct Answer:  4

Explanations:

  1. Muscle memory refers to a person repeating a movement over and over until they can perform the activity without conscious effort. Activities, like riding a bicycle, typing, or playing a certain melody on a musical instrument, are all examples of muscle memory. The students would not be repeating the activity often enough to develop muscle memory.
  2. The children are standing still, so they are not having to coordinate much foot movement with their eyes.
  3. Tactile awareness refers to a person’s sense of feel or touch. The children are not really touching or feeling things, so it would not promote tactile awareness.
  4. This is the best answer as the students would have to think about ways to move and shape their body to mimic the letter.

Question 8

Mr. Hawks, an elementary physical education teacher, designs an activity where he divides the class into three rows. He places one row on the north wall of the gym, the second row on the south wall of the gym, and the third row in the middle of the gym. He instructs the students on the north and south walls to roll balls back and forth and instructs the students in the middle to avoid being hit by a ball and avoid touching other students. This activity is most effective in developing the third-row students’:

  1. Spatial awareness
  2. Balance
  3. Fine motor skills
  4. Hand-eye coordination

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. This is the best answer choice. The students in the middle must be aware of their location, the location of all the balls, and the location of the other students. This requires them to have awareness of the space around them.
  2. Although the students have to balance, they are constantly moving so balancing is not the foremost concern.
  3. Fine motor skills are the use and coordination of small muscles within the body, such as moving fingers in coordination with the eyes. The students are moving their entire bodies, not just small muscles.
  4. The students are using their feet in the activity and there is not much hand movement or a requirement to use one’s hands.

Question 9

Mr. Harris is a sixth-grade physical education teacher. During class, Mr. Harris asks Billy to stand up and come to the front of the class. Mr. Harris tells Billy to stand straight up with his feet close together while Mr. Harris gently pushes Billy off-balance. Next, Mr. Harris tells Billy to separate his feet and slightly crouch down. Mr. Harris then uses the same amount of force, but is unable to push Billy off-balance. Which of the following is the activity most likely to promote to Mr. Harris’s sixth-grade class?

  1. Changing speed or rhythm effects balance
  2. Raising the center of gravity improves balance
  3. Increasing the body’s base increases stability
  4. Decreasing the load on a muscle group increases balance and stability

Correct Answer:  3

Explanations:

  1. Mr. Harris didn’t change speed or rhythm, he pushed Billy in the same manner.  Billy changed his positioning.
  2. Billy lowered his center of gravity by crouching, which improved his balance.  
  3. Widening the feet increases the base of support for one’s stability. As feet move closer together, the center of gravity becomes higher and decreases support; however, the wider the feet move apart the lower and more centered the center of gravity and the more stable the position.
  4. No significant change to any muscle group’s load occurred in this experiment.

Question 10

According to current research, which of the following best promotes student participation in lifelong physical activity?

  1. Learning how to play a popular sport
  2. Playing on a team that regularly wins
  3. Acquiring the skills needed to participate in a variety of physical activities
  4. Introducing the students to proper exercise form, such as a proper push-up technique and a proper squatting technique

Correct Answer:  3

Explanations:

  1. Learning how to play a popular sport is not the best way to promote lifelong participation because when a student no longer plays that particular sport, or if the student does not like that particular sport, they may not feel confident to attempt another sport.  
  2. It is unlikely students will always win; students need to learn how to win and lose gracefully.
  3. This is the best answer because research indicates that when students acquire basic skills to participate in a variety of activities, then students are more likely to participate and feel confident in their abilities.
  4. Knowing proper exercise form may not promote lifelong participation in physical activities.

Question 11

Which of the following movements most clearly demonstrates basic non-locomotor body management?

  1. Leaping with variation in distance
  2. Standing on a balance beam
  3. Hopping up and down
  4. Throwing a baseball

Correct Answer:  2

Explanations:

  1. Locomotor skills involve moving the body from one location to another.  Leaping would constitute such an activity.
  2. Non-locomotor body management would be an activity where there is no movement, but body control is required. Standing on a balance beam requires body control and management, but does not require movement.
  3. Locomotor skills involve moving the body from one location to another.  Hopping would constitute such an activity.
  4. Locomotor skills involve moving the body from one location to another.  Moving one’s arm to throw a baseball would constitute such an activity.

Question 12

Asking students to practice throwing and catching a baseball-best promotes which of the following skills?

  1. Fine motor skills
  2. Self-efficacy
  3. Manipulative skills
  4. Rhythmic skills

Correct Answer:  3

Explanations:

  1. Fine motor skills are the coordination of small muscles with the eyes; examples would be handwriting and pencil grip.
  2. Self-efficacy is an individual’s opinion of himself.
  3. Manipulative skills are when a student handles an object with his hands, feet, or another body part. Examples of manipulative skills would be jumping rope, kicking a soccer ball, or throwing a baseball.
  4. Rhythmic skills require a student to perform an action or activity in a rhythmic manner. Examples would be dancing, skipping, or galloping.

Question 13

The potential to achieve mature performance in skipping, sliding and galloping may be evident around the age of:

  1. 3
  2. 5
  3. 6
  4. 7

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. At age three, children should be demonstrating the ability to gallop, skip, and slide.
  2. Children should be demonstrating the ability to gallop, skip, and slide before age five.
  3. Children should be demonstrating the ability to gallop, skip, and slide before age six.
  4. Children should be demonstrating the ability to gallop, skip, and slide before age seven.

Question 14

A high schooler’s family is beginning a fitness program that includes bicycling. To begin, the student and the father ride their bike two times a week for thirty minutes. According to the FITT criteria for fitness training, which of the following is an accurate application of the principle of time?

  1. Gradually increasing the sessions five minutes every two weeks
  2. Gradually increasing the number of sessions each week
  3. Gradually increasing the distance of each session
  4. Gradually reducing the amount of time of each session

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) would suggest gradually increasing the time of the physical activity to build endurance.
  2. Gradually increasing the number of sessions would pertain to the frequency aspect of FITT – (frequency, intensity, time, and type).
  3. Gradually increasing the distance would pertain to the intensity aspect of FITT – (frequency, intensity, time, and type). Because the amount of time in the session would remain 30 minutes – the answer does not say anything about increasing the amount of time – then the father and son would have to exert more energy to go a farther distance in the same amount of time.
  4. Gradually decreasing the amount of time in each session would not promote fitness, as the father and son would do less and less of the physical activity. This would not be promoted by FITT – (frequency, intensity, time, and type).

Question 15

The ability to transfer energy explosively into force is known as:

  1. Coordination

  2. Power

  3. Strength

  4. Speed

Correct Answer:  2

Explanations:

  1. Coordination refers to a person’s ability to manipulate movement.

  2. Power refers to a person’s ability to transfer energy.

  3. Strength refers to a person’s power. Strength is a description of power. It is not the ability to transfer energy.

  4. Speed refers to a how quickly a person can move from one point to another.

Question 16

A teacher times students as they run through an obstacle course as pictured. Which of the following skills is the teacher most likely assessing?

  1. Non-locomotor skills
  2. Agility
  3. Power
  4. Balance

Correct Answer:  2

Explanations:

  1. A non-locomotor activity consists of moving body parts, but remaining in the same place. Non-locomotor activities include stretching, twisting, turning, bending, etc. The question prompt clearly indicates that students are running, so students are not performing a non-locomotor activity.
  2. Agility is the ability to move quickly and easily. Running an obstacle course is a good indicator of agility.
  3. Power is one’s capacity to move an object. Running an obstacle course does not measure the power of a student because the student is not moving objects.
  4. Balance is one’s ability to remain upright. An obstacle course will primarily measure one’s agility.

Question 17

Mr. David wants to help his tenth-grade students set and achieve goals in their physical fitness. Which of the following strategies is most likely to help Mr. David?

  1. Help students analyze their own physical fitness and design a program that meets their interests and enhances their physical fitness
  2. Organize physical education activities that allow students to exert as much energy as they feel comfortable
  3. Create a circuit of physical fitness exercises that allows students to work multiple muscle groups in a single session
  4. Place students into groups of similar physical fitness levels and have them design group activities that meet their fitness needs

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. Students need to be aware of their fitness level so they can set appropriate fitness goals. Also, it is important they have a fitness plan, preferably one that pertains to their interests, that outlines clear activities to increase the students’ fitness.
  2. Organizing activities will not contribute to the students setting goals for their physical fitness.
  3. Creating a circuit of exercises will not contribute to the students setting goals for their physical fitness.
  4. Each student is unique and requires an individual workout plan.

Question 18

A teacher has the students perform the following warm-up exercises:

  • Jumping Jacks
  • Toe touches and ankle circles
  • Lunges
  • Running in place

During the main activity, students learn the basics of passing and receiving a soccer ball.

Which of the following warm-up activities best supports the skills needed for the main activity?

  1. Warm-up activity 1
  2. Warm-up activity 2
  3. Warm-up activity 3
  4. Warm-up activity 4

Correct Answer:  2

Explanations:

  1. Jumping jacks can improve a student’s cardiovascular strength generally, but does not directly aid in the passing of a soccer ball.
  2. Toe touches and ankle circles will best prepare a student for learning the basics of soccer because soccer consists of largely kicking a ball, which involves quick leg moves and ankle agility.
  3. Lunges can improve leg strength and flexibility, which may help a person to play soccer, but are less directly beneficial than toe touches/ankle circles.
  4. Running in place can improve a student’s cardiovascular strength generally, but does not directly aid in the passing of a soccer ball.

Question 19

During anaerobic exercises:

  1. glucose storage is increased.
  2. oxygen flow is increased to the muscle.
  3. muscles are deprived of oxygen.
  4. the primary goal is extended activity.

Correct Answer:  3

Explanations:

  1. Glucose storage is not increased, only the use of glucose is increased in anaerobic exercise.
  2. During anaerobic exercise, muscles use glucose instead of oxygen, because the activity requires more energy than just oxygen can provide.  The flow of oxygen is not improved, the body uses another energy source (glucose).
  3. Anaerobic exercise takes place when muscles use glucose for energy instead of oxygen because the activity requires more energy than just oxygen can provide. Examples of anaerobic exercise include sprinting and weight lifting.
  4. The primary goal for aerobic activity is extended activity, this is not the case for anaerobic exercise. Anaerobic exercises increase muscular strength and can decrease body fat.

Question 20

Which of the following is the best strategy to help students become more flexible?

  1. Start each activity with a warm-up activity and stretching
  2. Start each activity with a short run and jumping jacks
  3. End each activity with sprinting exercises
  4. Incorporate massages into the weekly class schedule

Correct Answer:  1

Explanation: Stretching helps students become more flexible. Stretching is the best activity to increase students’ flexibility.

Question 21

Which of the following activities would not increase cardiovascular endurance?

  1. Sitting on the couch
  2. Running in the park
  3. Swimming in a lake
  4. Lifting weights

Correct Answer:  1

Explanations:

  1. All other activities increase the heart rate and improve cardiovascular endurance. Sitting on the couch is not a physical activity and does not improve cardiovascular endurance.
  2. Running in a park is an aerobic exercise that would increase cardiovascular endurance.
  3. Swimming is an aerobic exercise that would increase cardiovascular endurance.
  4. Weightlifting is an exercise that would increase cardiovascular endurance.

Question 22

Ms. Sims, a second-grade teacher, has been teaching a unit of safety to her class. She has already taught several lessons on how to stay safe in various situations, steps to prevent accidents, and how to best respond in emergencies. Which of the following would be the best activity to assess the students’ knowledge on the unit?

  1. Ask the local fire department to talk to the class about safety in emergency situations
  2. Stage an emergency for the students to react to
  3. Divide students into groups of 3 and assign each group a unique emergency for which they must design a written plan of action
  4. Show a video on emergency situations for students

Correct Answer:  3

Explanations:

  1. Asking the local fire department to come talk does not allow the students to demonstrate their knowledge.
  2. First, this would only allow students to demonstrate their response in one emergency situation. Second, it is not a good idea to place students in an emergency situation as students might be hurt.
  3. This is the best answer option as students would be able to fully articulate their knowledge on the best plan of action for a specific situation. The teacher can then review the plan of actions and discuss the groups’ responses.
  4. Showing a video does not allow the students to demonstrate their knowledge.

Question 23

Which of the following would be the best strategy to promote safety awareness in a variety of situations?

  1. Listing common, scary situations students experience and how best to respond to the situations
  2. Discussing different ways to communicate in relationships
  3. Brainstorming a list of techniques to cope with difficult situations
  4. Practicing responding to difficult situations by role-playing responses

Correct Answer:  4

Explanations:

  1. Listing situations does not allow students to exercise decision-making skills. It is also impossible to list every potential dangerous scenario a student may face. Instruction should try to encourage and promote good decision-making with students.
  2. Discussing ways to communicate in relationships does not promote safety awareness.
  3. Brainstorming does not allow students to exercise decision-making skills. It is also impossible to list every potential dangerous scenario a student may face. Instruction should try to encourage and promote good decision-making with students.
  4. Role-playing responses to difficult situations is the best answer because it allows students to exercise decision-making skills. Students best learn how to handle a variety of situations by practicing good decision-making in role-playing environments.

Question 24

Which of the following strategies should a physical education teacher utilize to promote a sense of fairness and sportsmanship among students during physical activities?

  1. Encouraging all students that they are great at whichever game is currently being played

  2. Not declaring winners or losers by a defined score

  3. Encouraging supportive behaviors and attitudes among teammates and competitors

  4. Reciting a team chant before beginning athletic activities

Correct Answer:  3

Explanations:

  1. Not all students will be great at every game or activity they play. Promoting a false sense of mastery in an activity is not appropriate for a physical education teacher.

  2. Not keeping score or declaring a winner does not necessarily reduce the competition between students.

  3. Actively encouraging supportive behaviors and good sportsmanship is the best strategy to promote fairness and sportsmanship during physical activities. Socially rewarding positive behaviors is a key factor in promoting those behaviors.

  4. Reciting a team chant can promote team unity, but it is not the best option to encourage fairness and sportsmanship of the answer options.

Question 25

A physical education teacher is planning activities for his class that contains three students with disabilities. To best implement the planned activities with the fewest amount of restrictions, which of the following should be the primary goal of the teacher?

  1. Create activities that allow each student to engage in his own individual strengths

  2. Group the three students on their own team or activity

  3. Ask the three students to referee and help coach the activity

  4. Have the three students spend time after-class practicing the activity

Correct Answer: 1

Explanations:

  1. Physical education teachers should gear activities and skill development to best help all students in mainstream instruction. It is the goal of the teacher to design activities that allow each student to be successful in skill development and participation.

  2. Grouping the three students together fails to integrate them in any meaningful way.

  3. Excluding the three students and placing them in a non-participatory capacity does not encourage their success in skills development and participation.

  4. By making the students participate in a wholly separate activity and forcing them to spend extra time, the teacher fails to integrate them in any meaningful way.

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