TExES Physical Education EC-12 Ultimate Guide and Practice Test
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TExES Physical Education EC-12 Quick Facts
The TExES Physical Education EC-12 exam is designed to assess the basic knowledge and skills needed to teach physical education in Texas’ public schools.
The TExES Physical Education K-12 test is a computer-administered, multiple choice test. The test has 100 multiple choice questions. The total testing time is 5 hours; however, 15 minutes of that time is for the computer-administered test tutorial and compliance agreement. Test takers will have 4 hours and 45 minutes to complete the questions.
The TExES Physical Education K-12 assessment costs $116.00.
A score of 240 out of a possible 300 is needed to pass the exam.
In order to pass the TExES Physical Education EC-12 assessment, the amount of time needed to study will vary from person to person. Be sure to give yourself at least two months time to adequately prepare.
What test takers wish they would’ve known:
- Review all test-taking policies well in advance of arriving at the testing center
- Assure you’ve brought needed materials, including required identification
- Research routes and traffic patterns and allow yourself plenty of time to travel to the testing center
- Dress in layers
- Find your confidence and take the test with a positive attitude!
Information and screenshots obtained from the National Evaluation Series website.
Domain I: Movement Skills and Knowledge
Domain I of the TExES Physical Education EC-12 test has about 38 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 38% of the entire exam.
This domain is divided into 5 competencies:
- Motor Development and Learning
- Developing, Combining, and Integrating Motor Skills
- Movement Concepts and Biomechanical Principles
- Individual, Dual, and Team Sports and Activities
- Dance, Personal Performance Activities, Cooperative and Non-Traditional Games, Recreational Activities, and Outdoor Pursuits
So, let’s talk about them.
Motor Development and Learning
Let’s talk about some concepts from this competency.
Positive Transfer of Learning
Positive transfer of learning simply means that the skill you learned in one activity positively affects your ability to master a new activity. When applied to motor learning, this means that a PE teacher could begin teaching specific motor skills in pre-k or kindergarten, and then look for students to apply those skills to more advanced activities in later grades.
It is important for teachers/coaches to help students understand the relationship between motor skills and how to transfer them across activities. For example, a PE teacher might teach the overhand serve for tennis, and then when teaching how to overhand serve in volleyball, make a connection between the similar motor skills. Another example would be if someone already knew how to rollerblade, they could transfer the motor skill required for that to ice skating. It is not an identical skill; however, the skill required for rollerblading is similar to that of ice skating.
Visual and Kinesthetic Discrimination
Perceptual-motor skills allow sensory (visual and kinesthetic) information to be obtained and understood allowing for the appropriate action.
Kinesthetic discrimination is the ability to recognize small changes that involve muscle feelings and motions. Visual discrimination helps a child notice small differences between objects. Students need to be able to do both to develop strong perceptual-motor skills and use their brain and body together to accomplish different tasks. For example, requiring a student to walk on a straight line or balance beam while saying the alphabet would help students to practice thinking and moving at the same time. A student is required to do many things that require their muscles and mind to work together. Communication skills such as reading, speaking, and writing are motor-based abilities. To write, a child must know the alphabet, know how to combine letters of the alphabet to create sounds and be able to utilize motor skills to grip and use a pencil. The whole body needs to work together for a student to be a successful writer.
Developing, Combining, and Integrating Motor Skills
Locomotor skills involve the body traveling from one place to another. Non-locomotor skills refer to any body movement where the body remains stationary. For example:
A PE teacher might use the following activities to promote non-locomotor skills:
- Ask younger students to bend their bodies into shapes and/or roll on the floor.
- Ask students to participate in dance or gymnastics activities that shift weight side to side.
- Ask students to balance on different apparatuses.
- Ask students to create a dance that involves a lot of movement
- Ask students to create a gymnastics routine that involves stretching, twisting, and bending.
Rhythmic skills are the basis of dance and music and the purpose of this type of skill is so that a student learns to move effectively while developing a sense of rhythm. Rhythmic skills include moving the body or parts of the body in time with the tempo, beat, or pitch of music.
Activities that promote rhythmic skills:
- Square dancing
- Line dancing
- Group dances
- Asking students to create their own rhythms
- Lummi sticks (wooden rods that students can tap together or on a hard surface to create or follow a rhythm)
Movement Concepts and Biomechanical Principles
The biomechanical principles are:
- Center of gravity (the point at which weight is balanced)
- Gymnastics activities are excellent for working on this principle.
- Bowling is a great activity to explain inertia.
- Balance activities are great to work on stability.
- Gymnastics activities are great for working on this principle.
- Tug-of-war is an activity that effectively demonstrates force.
- Buoyancy (an upward force, contradictory to gravity, that keeps objects afloat)
- Acceleration (the change in velocity over a period of time)
- Sprinting and throwing balls are great activities to demonstrate acceleration.
Individual, Dual, and Team Sports and Activities
The basic equipment that is necessary for archery in physical education:
- Netting- Most nets can be spread out to whatever size necessary. The net is important to stop arrows that miss the target.
- Arrows- The projectile used to practice archery. There are different sizes and types of arrows sold, and it is important to look for arrows for beginning archers.
- Bows- There are different types of bows, and it is important to consider the size and skill level of the archers who will be using the bows.
- Targets- A target is essential when teaching archery, and there are a few different types that students may use in physical education.
Introducing a New Skill
PE teachers will introduce many skills and sports to students. It is important that teachers introduce new sports in a thoughtful way so students are set up for success. PE teachers should introduce a new sport using the following steps:
1. Introduce the skill
- Explain the new skill/sport to students by providing background, basic vocabulary, modeling.
2. Provide drills to lead up to the game
- Repetitive drills are a great way to focus on specific skills that need to be taught in isolation. For example, if you are teaching basketball, you could introduce separate skills like passing, dribbling, shooting, etc and use drills to strengthen each skill.
3. Require students to practice the skill
- Students should have the opportunity to practice skills together while working on learning the sport. During this time teachers should provide constant feedback. For example, if a teacher was introducing basketball he/she would give students the opportunity to play a 3v1 game in a smaller area to practice skills, but not play on the whole court. The teacher would model the game for students, and walk through it slowly so all students had the opportunity to see the expectation.
4. Provide feedback and correct errors
- While students are practicing a skill/game, teachers should be ready to stop play and correct any errors as well as reinforce the correct use of skills. While playing the 3v1 basketball game, the teacher should stop the game to correct any errors in skill.
Dance, Personal Performance Activities, Cooperative and Non-Traditional Games, Recreational Activities, and Outdoor Pursuits
A folk dance typically reflects the life and/or religion of a certain country or region. Folk dance began as a social function, as an enhancement to religious ceremonies, and brought a recreational aspect to celebrations. Many folk dances are performed on stage today, but folk dance did not begin as a way to perform. Examples of folk dances from around the world:
- Clogging- Performed by beating heavy shoes on the floor while dancing
- Square dancing- Traditional dance that involves four pairs of dancers moving together.
- Fandango- A traditional Spanish partner dance that is accompanied by clapping, castanets, and/or guitars
Characteristics of folk dance include:
- Reflective of culture
- Provides socialization
- Passed down generations
- Performed on special occasions and festival
Orienteering is an activity in which orienteers use a detailed map and compass to find points in an area. A standard course has a starting location, a series of sites marked by circles that are connected by lines and numbered in the order they should be visited by the orienteer, and a finish point. Orienteers use compass and map skills to navigate their way through the course. Orienteering began in Sweden during the late 1800s as part of Sweden’s military training.
Domain II: Health-Related Physical Fitness
Domain II of the TExES Physical Education EC-12 test has about 31 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 31% of the entire exam.
This domain can be divided into 4 competencies:
- Major Body Systems, Physical Fitness Development, and Healthy Lifestyles
- Cardiovascular Endurance
- Flexibility, Posture, and Muscular Strength and Endurance
- Health and Wellness Concepts
So, let’s talk about them.
Major Body Systems, Physical Fitness Development, and Healthy Lifestyles
Basic Components of Health-Related Fitness
The components of health-related fitness are:
- Cardiovascular endurance
- Important because the heart pumps blood and oxygen through the whole body. The stronger the heart is, the more efficiently blood flows to other organs and muscles, so the body performs at it’s best. Activities such as running, biking, and swimming (or any activities that require an elevated heart rate for an extended amount of time) improve cardiovascular endurance.
- Muscular strength and endurance
- Muscular strength can be used for a variety of physical activities and can be improved by doing weight-bearing exercises at least three times per week.
- Important so that joints have a full range of motion. Flexibility can be improved by stretching consistently before and after exercise.
- Body composition
- Refers to the ratio of lean body tissue (muscle and bone) to fat in a person’s body. If a person’s body is made up of an unhealthy percentage of fat, that person might experience physical setbacks. Body composition can be improved by eating a well-balanced diet as well as adding exercise into a daily routine.
Aerobic exercise, also known as cardio, is exercise that requires the heart to pump quickly which moves oxygen to the muscles that are engaged.
Examples of aerobic exercise:
Perceived exertion is a scale that is used to gauge the intensity of an exercise. The scale ranges from 0-10 with zero being relaxed and sitting down and ten being extremely heavy exercise. Exertion should be assessed after exercise. Shortness of breath and muscle fatigue should be considered when assessing exertion levels. The exertion scale is:
0: No exertion
1: Very light
2-3: Light activity
4-6: Moderate activity
7-8: Vigorous activity
9: Very difficult activity
10: Maximum effort activity
Flexibility, Posture, and Muscular Strength and Endurance
Kyphosis is an extreme, forward rounding of the spine. Kyphosis can happen at any age but is most common in older women. Kyphosis can be caused due to spinal weakness, but can also be a birth defect. Kyphosis can range in severity from mild to severe. Mild kyphosis causes few issues, but severe kyphosis can cause pain. Kyphosis can be treated in various ways depending on the severity and effects of the curvature as well as the age of the patient.
BruceBlaus [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)]
Activities to Increase Muscular Endurance
Muscular endurance (or stamina) is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert force over and over throughout an extended period of time. Effective activities to increase muscular endurance include:
- Walking lunges
Health and Wellness Concepts
Everyone encounters a certain level of stress and it is important that stress is dealt with in a healthy way. Some techniques for managing stress include:
- Relaxation techniques such as meditation or yoga
- Regular exercise
- Well-balanced meals
- Sufficient amounts of sleep
- Talking to a professional counselor
Stress management has physiological and psychological and psychological benefits.
Psychological benefits include:
- Losing temper less often and less frustration
- Improved focus
- Less worry
- More positive outlook in situations
- Fewer feelings of missing out
Physiological benefits include:
- Stronger immunity
- Less risk of heart disease
- Slower effects of aging
- Healthier digestive system
- More restful sleep
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans
The US Department of Health and Human Services recommends optimal levels of physical activity for various life stages.
Young children 3-5:
Should be physically active throughout the day and adults should encourage active play that includes a variety of activities.
Older children and adolescents 6-17:
Should have opportunities and be encouraged to participate in physical activities that are age appropriate and enjoyable. Children 6-17 should participate in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical play daily. Muscle and bone-strengthening physical activities should be included at least three days a week.
Adults 18+ should aim to sit less and move more through the day. For the greatest health benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes to 300 minutes of moderate activity or 75-150 minutes of vigorous activity weekly. Adults should also incorporate muscle-strengthening exercises multiple times a week.
Domain III: The Physical Education Program
Domain III of the TExES Physical Education EC-12 test has about 31 multiple-choice questions. These questions account for 31% of the entire exam.
This domain can be divided into 4 competencies:
- Instruction and Assessment
- Learning Environments and Opportunities
- Structure, Organization, Goals, and Purposes of Physical Education Programs
- Legal Issues and Responsibilities
So, let’s talk about them.
Instruction and Assessment
Lesson Plan Objectives
A PE teacher in Texas should refer to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for physical education. Physical education TEKS can be found at http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter116/index.html. Each grade level has TEKS that promote safety, mastery of goals, and student progress.
Using Technology to Assess Students
Educators are encouraged to use technology as a way to instruct and assess students when possible because students are many times more engaged when using technology. A PE teacher could assess students using technology by:
- Require students to track their exercise on apps like MyFitnessPal.
- Give students the opportunity to film themselves while playing a specific game, completing a specific exercise, etc, and then share it electronically.
- Assign a report or presentation based on a unit of study and allow students to use multiple forms of media to complete the report or presentation.
Learning Environments and Opportunities
Attribution Motivational Theory
The attribution theory is a concept in sports psychology that helps PE teachers understand what students and athletes credit their success and failure. This is important because a student’s mindset has a direct impact on their growth and motivation in class. For example, a trained athlete might credit his success to his work ethic, perseverance, and determination. However, a student who has not had much success athletically might consider any success they have as luck. PE teachers need to understand where their students attribute their success or failure so that they can guide students towards success. Students will believe that their success or failure is due to either external factors (outside of their control) or internal factors (within their control).
PE teachers should work to motivate and encourage students by praising their hard work and positive attitudes. Praising students for hard work or working through frustrations reinforces the idea that students reached their goals because of hard work, not luck.
Structure, Organization, Goals, and Purposes of Physical Education Programs
PE teachers should strive to integrate PE content and other curricula so that students make stronger connections to all content. Examples of how a PE teacher might do this:
- Math- Take measurements, track data/scores using graphs, problem solve
- ELA- Require students to journal or write about their activities and write and present reports
- Science- Connect physics concepts (force and motion) to sports and discuss the connection between human body systems and success in PE
Legal Issues and Responsibilities
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR is an emergency procedure that involves performing chest compressions as well as breaths in an effort to preserve brain function when the heart stops pumping blood when a person goes into cardiac arrest.
Click the link for more information about performing CPR: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cosVBV96E2g
Standard of Care
Standard of care refers to the legal responsibility a PE (or any) teacher has when supervising students in a classroom. PE teachers should ensure that:
- Students are progressively taught the skills necessary to safely participate in PE activities.
- Equipment is arranged safely and not damaged to the point it is dangerous or ineffective.
- The play environment is safe (especially outdoors). PE teachers should consider extreme temperatures, air quality, and other environmental factors when determining if an area is safe for activities.
- Students are constantly supervised. Especially if the students are participating in an activity that could cause bodily harm.
PE teachers have been held legally responsible when students have been injured while under their supervision when they are not following the appropriate standard of care policies.
And that’s some basic info about the exam.
Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.
Practice Questions and Answers
Which of the following is not a benefit of exercise?
- higher fat insulation and storage
- increased blood flow to muscles
- improved cardiovascular health
- higher daily caloric consumption
Which of the following best describes an average four-year-old’s ability to walk?
- Their walking is choppy and uncoordinated.
- Their walking is automatic and has an adult style.
- Their walking is characterized by large, high steps and they tend to have one foot firmly on the ground.
- Their walking still needs to be stabilized by an adult.
Correct answer: 2. This is the best answer. By age four, a child’s walking ability should be fluid and mimic the walking style of an adult. All other answer choices describe an infant’s walking style.
Which of the following best describes the purpose of a health education program in a school?
- to protect the health of the student body
- to educate students on how to make healthy choices
- to facilitate the education on topics such as sex, vaccinations, and abuse
- to meet state-required educational goals
Correct answer: 2. The purpose of health education programs is to equip students to make healthy decisions in all aspects of their lives. Health education programs help students learn how to make healthy decisions by educating students on various topics, as well as highlighting the consequences of unhealthy decisions.
In schools across the United States, there has been an increased awareness of health and fitness related issues, especially regarding proper diet and nutrition for adolescents. Which of the following has this increased awareness led to?
- an increased emphasis on promoting individuals’ lifelong participation in physical activity and exercises
- an increased emphasis on traditional physical activities in physical education classes
- a widespread belief that physical education and nutrition knowledge should be incorporated into standardized testing
- an increase in the amount of time students are required to spend each day in physical education classes
Correct answer: 1. This is the best answer. As obesity among adolescents is increasing, the desire for children to have a greater knowledge of exercise and nutrition is also increasing, and physical education classes are trying to promoting lifelong participation in physical activities. This has led to a decrease in traditional P.E. exercises and an increase in more “fun” physical activities to show kids that physical activity can be enjoyable.
Carbohydrates are most useful for the:
- conversion of starches and sugars to glucose.
- building of muscle.
- absorption of nutrients by cells.
- replenishing stomach lining.
Mrs. Gruntle is planning a health unit on substance abuse. Before beginning the unit, Mrs. Gruntle prepares a pretest to give the students. Which of the following is the most important advantage of the pretest?
- The pretest will encourage students to investigate what misconceptions they have about substance abuse.
- The pretest will help Mrs. Gruntle recognize misconceptions students have about substance abuse.
- The pretest will alert students to the serious nature of the unit topic.
- The pretest will increase the students’ desire to learn about substance abuse.
Correct answer: 2. Many students develop misconceptions about substance abuse. To best educate the students on the effects of substance abuse, Mrs. Gruntle will need to know what misconceptions the students have, so they can be adequately addressed. The pretest will allow Mrs. Gruntle to identify various misconceptions the students have and this will allow her to develop instructional activities to correct misconceptions and develop a correct view of substance abuse among her students.
Mr. Alberts is an elementary physical education teacher. For an activity, he writes various letters on large poster boards and has his class stand in a line perpendicular to him. He holds up a poster board with a letter and the students think of a way to shape their body to mimic the shape of the letter. This activity is most likely to promote the students’ physical development in which of the following areas?
- muscle memory
- eye-foot coordination
- tactile awareness
- body awareness
Mr. Hawks, an elementary physical education teacher, designs an activity where he divides the class into three rows. He places one row on the north wall of the gym, the second row on the south wall of the gym, and the third row in the middle of the gym. He instructs the students on the north and south walls to roll balls back and forth and instructs the students in the middle to avoid being hit by a ball and avoid touching other students. This activity is most effective in developing the third-row students’:
- spatial awareness
- fine motor skills
- hand-eye coordination
Correct answer: 1. This is the best answer choice. The students in the middle must be aware of their location, the location of all the balls, and the location of the other students. This requires them to have awareness of the space around them.
Mr. Harris is a sixth-grade physical education teacher. During class, Mr. Harris asks Billy to stand up and come to the front of the class. Mr. Harris tells Billy to stand straight up with his feet close together while Mr. Harris gently pushes Billy off-balance. Next, Mr. Harris tells Billy to separate his feet and slightly crouch down. Mr. Harris then uses the same amount of force but is unable to push Billy off-balance. Which of the following is the activity most likely to promote to Mr. Harris’s sixth-grade class?
- changing speed or rhythm effects balance
- raising the center of gravity improves balance
- increasing the body’s base increases stability
- decreasing the load on a muscle group increases balance and stability
Correct answer: 3. Widening the feet increases the base of support for one’s stability. As feet move closer together, the center of gravity becomes higher and decreases support; however, the wider the feet move apart the lower and more centered the center of gravity and the more stable the position.
According to current research, which of the following best promotes student participation in lifelong physical activity?
- learning how to play a popular sport
- playing on a team that regularly wins
- acquiring the skills needed to participate in a variety of physical activities
- introducing the students to proper exercise form, such as a proper push-up technique and a proper squatting technique
Correct answer: 3. This is the best answer because research indicates that when students acquire basic skills to participate in a variety of activities, then students are more likely to participate and feel confident in their abilities.
Which of the following movements most clearly demonstrates a basic non-locomotor body management?
- leaping with variation in distance
- standing on a balance beam
- hopping up and down
- throwing a baseball
Correct answer: 2. Non-locomotor body management would be an activity where there is no movement, but body control is required. Standing on a balance beam requires body control and management, but does not require movement.
Asking students to practice throwing and catching a baseball best promotes which of the following skills?
- fine motor skills
- manipulative skills
- rhythmic skills
Correct answer: 3. Manipulative skills are when a student handles an object with his hands, feet, or another body part. Examples of manipulative skills would be jumping rope, kicking a soccer ball, or throwing a baseball.
The potential to achieve mature performance in skipping, sliding and galloping may be evident around the age of:
A high schooler’s family is beginning a fitness program that includes bicycling. To begin, the student and the father ride their bike two times a week for thirty minutes. According to the FITT criteria for fitness training, which of the following is an accurate application of the principle of time?
- gradually increasing the sessions five minutes every two weeks
- gradually increasing the number of sessions each week
- gradually increasing the distance of each session
- gradually reducing the amount of time of each session
The ability to transfer energy explosively into force is known as:
A teacher times students as they run through an obstacle course as pictured. Which of the following skills is the teacher most likely assessing?
- non-locomotor skills
Mr. David wants to help his tenth-grade students set and achieve goals in their physical fitness. Which of the following strategies is most likely to help Mr. David?
- Help students analyze their own physical fitness and design a program that meets their interests and enhances their physical fitness.
- Organize physical education activities that allow students to exert as much energy as they feel comfortable.
- Create a circuit of physical fitness exercises that allows students to work multiple muscle groups in a single session.
- Place students into groups of similar physical fitness levels and have them design group activities that meet their fitness needs.
Correct answer: 1. Students need to be aware of their fitness level so they can set appropriate fitness goals. Also, it is important they have a fitness plan, preferably one that pertains to their interests, that outlines clear activities to increase the students’ fitness.
A teacher has the students perform the following warm-up exercises:
- Jumping Jacks
- Toe touches and ankle circles
- Running in place
During the main activity, students learn the basics of passing and receiving a soccer ball.
Which of the following warm-up activities best supports the skills needed for the main activity?
- Warm-up activity 1
- Warm-up activity 2
- Warm-up activity 3
- Warm-up activity 4
Correct answer: 2. Toe touches and ankle circles will best prepare a student for learning the basics of soccer because soccer consists of largely kicking a ball, which involves quick leg moves and ankle agility.
During anaerobic exercises:
- muscles are deprived of oxygen.
- oxygen flow is increased to the muscle.
- glucose storage is increased.
- the primary goal is extended activity.
Correct answer: 1. Anaerobic exercise takes place when muscles use glucose for energy instead of oxygen because the activity requires more energy than just oxygen can provide. Examples of anaerobic exercise include sprinting and weight lifting.
Which of the following is the best strategy to help students become more flexible?
- Start each activity with a warm-up activity and stretching.
- Start each activity with a short run and jumping jacks.
- End each activity with sprinting exercises.
- Incorporate massages into the weekly class schedule.
Which of the following activities would not increase cardiovascular endurance?
- sitting on the couch
- running in the park
- swimming in a lake
- lifting weights
Correct answer: 1. All other activities increase the heart rate and improve cardiovascular endurance. Sitting on the couch is not a physical activity and does not improve cardiovascular endurance.
Ms. Sims, a second-grade teacher, has been teaching a unit on safety to her class. She has already taught several lessons on how to stay safe in various situations, steps to prevent accidents, and how to best respond in emergencies. Which of the following would be the best activity to assess the students’ knowledge on the unit?
- Ask the local fire department to talk to the class about safety in emergency situations.
- Stage an emergency for the students to react to.
- Divide students into groups of 3 and assign each group a unique emergency for which they must design a written plan of action.
- Show a video on emergency situations for students.
Correct answer: 3. This is the best answer option as students would be able to fully articulate their knowledge on the best plan of action for a specific situation. The teacher can then review the plan of actions and discuss the groups’ responses.
Which of the following would be the best strategy to promote safety awareness in a variety of situations?
- listing common, scary situations students experience and how best to respond to the situations
- discussing different ways to communicate in relationships
- practicing responding to difficult situations by role-playing responses
- brainstorming a list of techniques to cope with difficult situations
Correct answer: 3. Role-playing responses to difficult situations is the best answer because it allows students to exercise decision-making skills. Students best learn how to handle a variety of situations by practicing good decision-making in role-playing environments.
Which of the following strategies should a physical education teacher utilize to promote a sense of fairness and sportsmanship among students during physical activities?
- encouraging all students and telling them that they are great at whichever game is currently being played
- not declaring winners or losers by a defined score
- encouraging supportive behaviors and attitudes among teammates and competitors
- reciting a team chant before beginning athletic activities
Correct answer: 3. Actively encouraging supportive behaviors and good sportsmanship is the best strategy to promote fairness and sportsmanship during physical activities. Socially rewarding positive behaviors is a key factor in promoting those behaviors.
A physical education teacher is planning activities for his class that contains three students with disabilities. To best implement the planned activities with the fewest amount of restrictions, which of the following should be the primary goal of the teacher?
- Create activities that allow each student to engage in his own individual strengths.
- Group the three students on their own team or activity.
- Ask the three students to referee and help coach the activity.
- Have the three students spend time after class practicing the activity.
Correct answer: 1. Physical education teachers should gear activities and skill development to best help all students in mainstream instruction. It is the goal of the teacher to design activities that allow each student to be successful in skill development and participation.