Human Body Systems
The human body consists of a variety of body systems that work together to allow the body to function properly and perform daily tasks. The body systems are the circulatory, digestive, lymphatic, endocrine, integumentary, muscular, nervous, urinary, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal systems.
Growth and Development
The human body experiences numerous changes over the course of a lifetime as a result of growth and development. During infancy and early childhood, growth occurs rapidly and many changes are experienced, including changes in body size and weight. Adolescents experience additional changes during puberty, including growth spurts, breast development, hair growth, and an increase in sweating. In addition to the physical changes of puberty, many emotional changes also occur due to changes in hormones. It is not uncommon for adolescents undergoing puberty to experience mood swings, extreme sensitivity, self-consciousness, and feelings of uncertainty.
Nutrition and Exercise
Proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and healthy body weight are key components of an individual’s overall well-being and health. Together, a healthy diet and physical activity can help decrease an individual’s risk of developing serious health conditions, chronic diseases, and some forms of cancer. They can also benefit individuals by strengthening muscles and bones, improving mood and energy level, and decreasing obesity risks.
Components of Fitness
The five components of fitness serve as a useful tool for creating effective personal fitness programs. Designing a fitness plan that embodies each of the five components can help ensure that individuals get the greatest health benefit from their plan. The five components of fitness are cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition.
Communicable diseases are illnesses that are spread from one individual to another or from an animal to a human. Communicable diseases are often referred to as infectious diseases. Communicable diseases are typically spread through direct contact with a sick individual, breathing in airborne bacteria or viruses, contact with bodily fluids or blood, contact with contaminated surfaces, or insect or animal bites. Common communicable diseases include the common cold, influenza, hepatitis, and malaria. Communicable diseases can be prevented by receiving appropriate vaccinations and washing your hands regularly, including before and after eating and after coughing or sneezing.
Noncommunicable diseases are illnesses or health conditions that cannot be spread from person to person. Noncommunicable diseases are often referred to as chronic diseases. Common noncommunicable diseases include cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Noncommunicable diseases typically result from a variety of health factors, including genetics as well as physiological, environmental, and lifestyle factors. These lifestyle factors include unhealthy diet, irregular exercise, smoking, and excessive alcohol use. Noncommunicable diseases can be prevented by eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, avoiding too much alcohol, getting ample sleep, and being aware of your family health history. There are three approaches for preventing common chronic diseases: primary (legislation, education, and immunization), secondary (daily exercise), and tertiary (chronic disease management programs) prevention.
Mental health is the collective state of our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Factors that can contribute to mental health disorders include biological factors, life experiences, and family history. Common warning signs of mental health disorders include eating or sleeping too much, loss of previous interests, lack of energy, feeling hopeless or indifferent, persistent thoughts, mood swings, thoughts of harming oneself or others, and the inability to perform daily tasks. Mental health disorders can affect individuals and their families, peers, and community. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, students need both physical and emotional health in order to function at their highest capacity. (Maslow’s hierarchy includes physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs.)
Stress refers to a feeling of emotional or physical tension. Stress often results from events that cause individuals to feel frustrated, anxious, or angry. How your body reacts to a challenge or situation is stress. While stress can be positive (as when it helps you to avoid a dangerous situation), stress is generally thought of as negative.
Stress often negatively affects individuals’ lives. Common physical, psychological, and emotional signs of stress include rapid heart rate, fatigue, increased blood pressure, feelings of being overwhelmed, sleep difficulties, and persistent thoughts of stressors. Continual stress can result in health problems such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, and diabetes.
And that’s some basic information about Domain I.