TExES English Language Arts and Reading 7-12 Ultimate Guide2019-07-25T18:46:49+00:00

TExES English Language Arts and Reading 7-12 (231) Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the TExES ELAR 7-12 exam?

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TExES ELAR 7-12 Quick Facts

The exam assesses a candidate’s knowledge of the given subject in order to prove their competence to teach the subject. The TExES English Language Arts and Reading 7-12 exam focuses on the areas of literature, written and oral communication, and more.

The exam is a computer-based test with 100 multiple choice questions and 2 constructed response questions; one covers literary analysis and the other is a three-part writing assessment. The allotted time to finish the exam is five hours. 

Cost: 

The exam costs $116 to be paid using a credit or debit card. 

Scoring: 

The minimum scaled score to pass is a 240. 

Study time: 

In order to pass the TExES ELAR 7-12 assessment, the amount of time needed to study will vary from person to person. Be sure to give yourself at least two months time to adequately prepare. 

What test takers wish they would’ve known: 

  • Review all test-taking policies well in advance of arriving to the testing center
  • Assure you’ve brought needed materials, including required identification
  • Research routes and traffic patterns and allow yourself plenty of time to travel to the testing center
  • Dress in layers
  • Find your confidence and take the test with a positive attitude!

Information and screenshots obtained from the Pearson website.

Domain I: Integrated Language Arts, Diverse Learners, and the Study of English

Overview

Domain I has about 15 questions which accounts for about 15% of the entire test.

This domain contains 3 competencies:

  • Integrating ELA Instruction
  • Instructing Diverse Students
  • Understanding the Structure and Development of English

So, let’s talk about Integrating ELA Instruction first.

Integrating ELA Instruction

This competency tests your knowledge of integrating ELA instruction.

Take a look at these concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)

It is important to understand the continuum of language arts skills and expectations for students in grades 7-12, as specified in the TEKS. 

Let’s look at how a specific skill, using print or digital resources, expands across the grade levels:

Writing and Math

Integrating writing in math class allows for a student to communicate what they know about math concepts and problem solving. If a student can communicate their learning in writing then that student truly understands what has been taught. There are two levels of integrating writing in a math class. The first level is writing without revision which can easily be integrated in a math classroom and the second level is writing with revision (which will take more time). The complete writing process should be present in the math classroom.

Instructing Diverse Students

This competency tests your knowledge of instructing diverse students. 

Let’s talk about some super important concepts.

ELPS-TELPAS Proficiency Level Descriptors

The four domains for ELPS are reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Students who are labeled as ELs (English learners) or LEP (limited English proficient) will take the TELPAS assessment every year and be graded on each one of these domains. The levels that a student can achieve are beginning, intermediate, advanced, and advanced high. Each domain has different criteria in order for a student to meet the requirements for their level. The link below connects you to a guide with each domain and descriptors for each level. You will be required to recall the descriptors on the exam.

Assignment Modifications

A modification describes changes in the curriculum. This may include altering the standards or a given assessment. Within a classroom modifications could be shortening assignments or providing lower level text to read. This is done for students with cognitive impairments or language barriers due to their inability to learn all material or particular portions of the material presented. 

An accommodation alters how a student learns. This does not change what a student is expected to learn. An accommodation may be providing extra time to complete assignments, breaks during instruction, and using large print books and worksheets.

Understanding the Structure and Development of English

This competency tests your knowledge of understanding the structure and development of English. 

Be sure to understand the following concepts.

Homonyms

Homonyms are words that are spelt the same way or pronounced the same way but have different meanings or origins. Homophones are words that are pronounced the same way but have different spelling and a different meaning. For example, break is the motion of slowing down and break is to separate into pieces. A homograph are words spelt the same but have different word meanings. For example, tear is to rip or a drop of water from the eye. It is important to teach students the relationships among words so that they can understand what word or definition they should be using in the context that is appropriate.

Sentence Structure

The most basic parts of any sentence are the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person, place, or thing that is performing the action, while the predicate is what the subject is doing. There are four different kinds of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. 

Simple Sentences

    • One independent clause: one subject and one verb
    • Cannot have any subordinate clauses
    • Examples: 
  • Ellen DeGeneres and Steve Harvey host talk shows. 
  • Joe Jonas waited for the bus. 

Compound Sentences

    • Two or more independent clauses
    • Clauses can be joined using coordinating conjunction: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
    • Clauses can be joined using semicolon
    • Cannot have any subordinate clauses 
    • Examples: 
  • I really need to go to work, but I am too sick to drive. 
  • The waves were crashing on the shore; it was a lovely sight. 

Complex Sentences

    • One independent clause and at least one dependent clause
    • Use subordinating conjunctions to link ideas 
    • Examples: 
      • Parallel lines never meet until you bend one of them
      • Many dead animals of the past changed to oil while others preferred to be gas

Compound-Complex Sentences

    • At least two independent clauses and one dependent clause
    • Dependent clause can be part of independent clause 
    • Examples:
      • When the heat comes, the lakes dry up, and farmers know the crops will fail
      • I planned to drive to work, but I couldn’t until the mechanic repaired my car. 

Check out Khan Academy for ways to help teach sentence structure. 

And that’s some basic info about the first domain.

Domain II: Literature, Reading Processes, and Skills for Reading Literary and Nonliterary Texts

Overview

Domain II has about 40 questions which accounts for about 40% of the entire test.

This domain contains 4 competencies:

  • Teaching Reading Processes
  • Teaching Strategies for Reading Nonliterary Texts
  • Understanding Literary Texts
  • Teaching Strategies for Reading and Responding to Literary Texts

So, let’s talk about Teaching Reading Processes first.

Teaching Reading Processes

This competency tests your knowledge of teaching reading processes. 

Take a look at these concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Fluency and Comprehension

Fluency is the ability to read like you speak. It’s accurate reading of the text at a conversational rate with appropriate expression. The three components of reading fluency are accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. Accuracy refers to reading words correctly. Automaticity means recognizing words automatically. Prosody refers to reading with intonation, phrasing, and emotion. Fluency enables students to increase their level of comprehension, expand their vocabulary, and complete reading tasks effectively. Middle school and high school fluent readers are more proficient at complex literary processes that require deep comprehension skills. 

Instructional Strategies to Enhance Fluency:

  • Student-Recorded Passages: (Hudson, et al., 2005) Once students understand what good reading sounds like, the next step toward fluency is for the students to listen to themselves read. Many students at the middle and high school levels have never listened to themselves read text aloud. In other words, if they’re not paying attention to how they sound, they won’t actually know how they sound. A student-teacher conference that includes listening to the tape-recording, discussion of the student’s reflection, and analysis of his strengths and weaknesses in fluency can serve as a goal-setting opportunity during which the teacher can be explicit about the different components of fluency. This first recording can also be saved to demonstrate improvement in fluency over time.
  • Choral Reading: (Rasinski, 2003) Choral reading is an activity in which students (whole class or small groups) read the same text aloud and in unison. Dependent on the level of complexity of the text, as the teacher reads along with the students, s/he may read more or less loudly to serve as a model for the students to use as they read. The only additional requirement is that each of the students has access to the text that is being read. Each student can have a personal copy of the text or the teacher can write the text on chart paper / overhead transparency where each student can see it. For middle school and high school students, choral reading is particularly appropriate with complex text that students are not yet ready to read independently.
  • Paired Reading: (Fountas & Pinnell, 2006; Rasinski, 2003) Typically, this is an activity in which partners read aloud to or along with one another. If the pair of students shares the same reading level, they should have text that is at their independent level. They can choose to choral read, echo read, or take turns reading the designated passage. Be sure they stop and discuss their fluency along the way. Another way to pair students is to place an “expert” with a less fluent reader. The less fluent reader chooses the text and the expert adjusts his pace to that of the less fluent reader. If an error is made, the expert provides the correct pronunciation quickly, so as not to disrupt fluency. The expert or tutor can be a parent, an adult volunteer, the teacher, or even another student.

Resource: http://www2.nefec.org/learn/teacher/secondary/fluency/research/building8.htm

Comprehension Types and Strategies 

Check out the five types of reading comprehension here.

Teaching Strategies for Reading Nonliterary Texts

This competency tests your knowledge of teaching strategies for nonliterary text.

Check out the following concepts.

Nonliterary Text Structure

Vocabulary in Nonliterary Texts

A graphic organizer is one of the best strategies to use in order to increase student knowledge of specialized vocabulary in nonliterary text. The link below will detail the purpose and process of three different types of graphic organizers: 

Marzano’s Six Step Process for Learning Vocabulary, Frayer Model, and Compare and Contrast Diagram.

Understanding Literary Texts

This competency tests your knowledge of understanding literary text. 

Be sure to understand the following concepts, as they are likely to appear on the test, too.

Major Genres and Their Characteristics

American Literary Periods

The Colonial and Early National Period (17th century to 1830) 

  • Consisted of mostly of practical nonfiction 
  • Written by British settlers who populated the colonies, focusing on the future 
  • Once U.S. declared independence the writing addressed the country’s future 
  • Poetry and fiction was modeled after what was being published in Great Britain and much of what American readers consumed also came from Great Britain.
  • Short stories and novels published from 1800-1820s depicted American society

The Romantic Period (1830 to 1870)  

  • Edgar Allen Poe depicted the role of the Romantic individual, always struggling against convention 
  • In New England, different groups of writers emerged, exploring the experiences of individuals in different segments of American society
  • Nathan Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman published novels, short stories, and poetry that became some of the most enduring works of American literature  
  • As America headed toward the Civil War, more and more stories were written about enslaved and free African Americans 
  • Emily Dickinson was one of the only women who published work during this time 

Realism and Naturalism (1870 to 1910) 

  • At the age of 27 Samuel Clemens became Mark Twain, writing with a combination of humor and realism 
  • Drew inspiration from French authors seeking to depict the reality that they saw around them 

The Modernist Period (1910 to 1945) 

  • American modernist fiction portrays a sense of disillusionment and loss 
  • Drama was introduced for the first time in the United States in the early 20th century 

The Contemporary Period (1945 to present) 

  • Black writers working from the 1950s through the 1970s wrestled with the desire to escape an unjust society and change it 
  • After World War II different forms of writings emerged: realist, metafictional, postmodern, absurdist, autobiographical 
  • The Beat movement was short-lived but had a lasting influence on American poetry
  • By the 1970s the face of American drama had begun to change and it continued to diversify into the 21st century

Teaching Strategies for Reading and Responding to Literary Texts

This competency tests your knowledge of teaching strategies for reading and responding to literary texts. 

Take a look at these concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Motivating Students to Read Literature

Build Students’ Self-Confidence 

  • When learners believe they can achieve, they do achieve
  • Establish specific, short-term reading goals. Goals should be challenging but attainable 
  • Introduce a variety of graphic organizers or note-taking strategies to help students better understand what they are learning 
  • Allow students to make choices using choice boards, flexible grading, self-determined due dates

Spark New Learning 

  • Use a variety of instructional practices that embrace multiple forms of literacy 
  • Students’ interests should be the starting point for reading instruction 

Build Connections 

  • Make a connection between a student’s personal life and their school life by addressing topics relevant to the subject and to the students’ reality 

Go Beyond the Print 

  • Encourage students to make connections to popular movies based on literature 
  • Explore ways to promote reading through different technology sources 

Incorporate a Variety of Texts

  • Include a variety of appropriate, authentic young literature including graphic novels, newspapers, and magazines

Expand Choices and Options 

  • Give students a choice as to what to read
  • Include all literary genres and vary reading levels
  • Each student will have a slightly different experience based on the literature selected which will promote lively discussions and writings increasing reading motivation

Promote Conversations 

  • Provide purposeful opportunities for students to talk about books enhances their engagement

Responding to Literature

There are various ways that students can respond to literature that range from vocabulary building to writing their own piece. Below are a couple of different examples as well as a link to many more. 

10 Words: write 10 words from the reading that you do not know. Define them, use them in a sentence you created, and write the sentence in which you found the word 

Make Connections: make connections with your own experience as you read. Ask questions like: do the characters remind you of anyone in your life? Do the conflicts the characters face relate to problems you have experienced? 

Choose a “Truth”: decide a “truth” that you believe this author holds to be true. Write a persuasive essay in which you agree or disagree with that “truth.” 

Additional ways to respond to literature.

And that’s some basic info about Domain II.

Domain III: Written Communication

Overview

Domain III has about 30 questions which accounts for about 30% of the entire test.

This domain contains 2 competencies:

  • Developing Competent Writers
  • Teaching Effective Writing

So, let’s talk about Developing Competent Writers first.

Developing Competent Writers

This competency tests your knowledge of developing competent writers. 

Here are a couple of specific concepts you need to know.

Misplaced Modifiers

A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly placed in a sentence. A misplaced modifier can make a sentence sound awkward, confusing, and sometimes illogical. 

Examples: 

Misplaced Modifier: On her way home, Jan found a gold man’s watch. 

Correct Sentence: On her way home, Jan found a man’s gold watch

Misplaced Modifier: The child ate a cold dish of cereal for breakfast this morning.

Correct Sentence: The child ate a dish of cold cereal for breakfast this morning. 

Misplaced Modifier: We ate the lunch that we had brought slowly.

Correct Sentence: We slowly ate the lunch that we had brought. 

Misplaced Modifier: The dealer sold the Cadillac to the buyer with the leather seats

Correct Sentence: The dealer sold the Cadillac with the leather seats to the buyer. 

Misplaced Modifier: The waiter served a dinner roll to the woman that was well buttered. 

Correct Sentence: The waiter served a dinner roll that was well buttered to the woman. 

Writing Assessment

Teachers have the option to assess students’ writing on a variety of concepts including  ideas, voice, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions. This can be done formally or informally. It is imperative that a teacher establishes the focus of the writing and what the student will be assessed on prior to students starting their writing. Here is a resource that provides rubrics and different ideas on how to assess students on their writing.

Teaching Effective Writing

This competency tests your knowledge of teaching effective writing. 

Let’s talk about two concepts that you will more than likely see on the test.

Types of Phrases

Teachers can use sentence imitation, poetry with phrases, skeleton stories, shape sentences, and unscrambling and expansion to help teach students to include a variety of phrases in their writing. 

Literary Devices in Writing

Check out this article that outlines ways teachers can encourage the use of literary devices in writing.

And that’s some basic info about Domain III.

Domain IV: Oral Communication and Media Literacy

Overview

Domain IV has about 15 questions which accounts for about 15% of the entire test.

This domain contains 2 competencies:

  • Promoting Listening and Speaking Skills
  • Teaching Media Literacy

So, let’s talk about Promoting Listening and Speaking Skills first.

Promoting Listening and Speaking Skills

This competency tests your knowledge of promoting listening and speaking skills.

Let’s discuss a couple of concepts.

The Role of Cultural Factors in Oral Communication

Cultural factors impact oral communication greatly. For example, some cultures rely heavily on electronic technology and use written messages over oral or face-to-face communication. However there are nations that have this access to the latest technology, but prefer face-to-face communication. 

Culture factor also influence the type of agreements that are binding as formal contracts. High-context cultures like Latin American, African, and Asian leave much of the message to be interpreted through context, nonverbal cues, and between the lines interpretation of what is actually said. In contrast, low-context cultures like German and English expect messages to be specific and explicit. 

How Culture Impacts Oral Communication within the English Language:

Indians and Japanese tend to use more nouns which make the language heavy and cumbersome; native users of the language, on the other hand, use more verbs which make the language more direct and dynamic. 

Japanese: The police conducted an investigation into the murder. 

English: The police investigated the murder. 

Native users of English prefer the active voice whereas Asian users tend to use the passive voice more. This directly relates to how they communicate in their own language.

Asian: Allow the bill to be paid by me. 

English: Let me pay. I’ll pay. 

Japanese and Indians find it more difficult to say “no” directly. It can sound rude or “in your face”. They would rather imply a negative than say it out loud. This can cause misunderstandings as westerners sometimes might assume a deal is done and dusted, whereas there was never a “yes” implied.

Resource: https://www.communicaid.com/business-language-courses/blog/shifting-cultural-sensibilities-in-language-use/

Active Listening

Active listening is when you make a conscious effort to hear the words that someone is saying and understand the complete message being communicated. This is important because it impacts job effectiveness and the quality of relationships with others. Teachers can model and encourage the use of active listening by focusing on their students when they are speaking through a couple of different ways. 

Examples of How to be an Active Listener:

  • Pay Attention: look at students in the eye, put aside distracting thoughts, avoid environmental distractions
  • Show That You’re Listening: nod, smile, keep posture showing speaker you are interested and engaged 
  • Provide Feedback: reflect on what was said by paraphrasing, ask questions to clarify, summarize comments periodically 
  • Respond Appropriately: be open and honest, assert your opinions, treat the other person the same way you want to be treated

Teaching Media Literacy

This competency tests your knowledge of teaching media literacy. 

Check out the following important concepts.

Types and Purposes of Media

Fair Use

Fair use is brief excerpts of copyright material that may be directly quoted without the need of permission from the copyright holder. Section 107 of the Copyright Act provides the framework for determining when something is fair use and identifies the type of use including news reporting, teaching, and research. Although teaching is one of the types of uses covered under fair use, teachers do need to consider it when they are planning and during their instruction. Before a teacher uses copyright information in their planning and instruction they must consider whether it is for strictly nonprofit educational purposes, the nature of the copyright work, the amount of the copyright work being used, and the effect of the use of the potential market. 

And that’s some basic info about Domain IV.

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Practice Questions and Answers

Question 1

When teaching a lesson on including direct quotes in student writing, Mr. Keating reminds students to include a dialogue tag when incorporating direct quotes. Which of the following describes a dialogue tag?

  1. a phrase, like he said or she said
  2. the quotation marks placed around a quote
  3. either italics or quotation marks to identify direct quotes
  4. the colon or comma used between he said and the first quotation mark

Correct answer: 1. A dialogue tag is the phrase that introduces the upcoming quote. Phrases like, he said, she exclaimed, or they asked.

Question 2

Which two reasons explain why incorporating multiple types, genres, lengths, and styles of writing into the classroom is important for student writing success?

  1. so that students don’t become bored or weighed down by purely academic writing
  2. because students need variety in the classroom to effectively learn all writing skills
  3. writing with different styles, genres, and types allows students to practice writing skills in authentic and meaningful ways
  4. to show students that school is not the only place where writing occurs

Correct answers: 3 and 4. A variety of writing topics and genres allows the teacher to individualize writing to student interests and create authentic writing assignments.  Students need to understand that writing is a lifelong skill, not only to be used in academics.

Question 3

Ongoing assessment is extremely important in the writing process. Which of the following is the least important reason for ongoing assessment?

  1. ensuring that there are many scores so no one low grade will too significantly impact their average
  2. analyzing how well students can write for different purposes and audiences
  3. assessing students’ abilities to use competencies such as apostrophes, capitalization, and punctuation
  4. analyzing the students’ understanding of one or more areas of the writing process

Correct answer: 1. This is not one of the key reasons for ongoing assessment. While it is true that having many grades will have this affect on averages, assessment should be planned to best measure achievement and plan instruction, not to manipulate averages.

Questions 4-8 are based on the following excerpt written about World War I By Vernon Bartlett.

(1) Those at home in England, with their experience of war books and photographs, of Zeppelin raids and crowded hospitals, are beginning to imagine they know all there is to know about war. The truth is that they still have but little idea of the life in the trenches, and, as far as mud is concerned, they are delightfully ignorant. They do not know what mud is.

(2) They have read of Napoleon’s “Fourth Element,” they have listened to long descriptions of mud in Flanders and France, they have raised incredulous eyebrows at tales of men being drowned in the trenches, they have given a fleeting thought of pity for the soldiers “out there” as they have slushed home through the streets on rainy nights; but they have never realised what mud means, for no photograph can tell its slimy depth, and even the pen of a Zola or a Victor Hugo could give no adequate idea of it.

(3) It is the infantryman who suffers most, for he has to live, eat, sleep, and work in the mud. The plain of dragging slime that stretches from Switzerland to the sea is far worse to face than the fire of machine guns or the great black trench-mortar bombs that come twisting down through the air. It is more terrible than the frost and the rain—you cannot even stamp your feet to drive away the insidious chill that mud always brings. Nothing can keep it from your hands and face and clothes; there is no taking off your boots to dry in the trenches—you must lie down just as you are, and often you are lucky if you have two empty sandbags under you to save you from the cold embrace of the swamp.

Question 4

While making a point that those who had never served in WWI could not truly know the horrors of the front, the author assumes that:

  1. readers have a solid grasp of the conditions of trenches and mud on the front.
  2. readers know the major generals of the war.
  3. readers have handled weapons before and can identify the different kinds.
  4. readers understand the parameters of the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended the war.

Correct answer: 1. The author makes references to the trenches without explaining them, so the assumption is that the readers know what trenches are.

Question 5

What attitude does the author hold towards “[t]hose at home in England”?

  1. The author thinks those at home are too sympathetic towards the soldiers at the front.
  2. The author thinks those at home are too harsh in their judgement of conditions on the front.
  3. The author thinks those at home will never have any idea how terrible conditions are at the front, as they have never experienced it firsthand.
  4. The author thinks those at home are right and that the war should end as soon as possible.

Correct answer: 3. The author’s attitude shows that he does not think those at home know what it is like to be at the front. One example of this is when he says “The truth is that they still have but little idea of the life in the trenches.”

Question 6

What is the organization of the paragraphs in this passage?

  1. The first paragraph describes what “those at home” think they know about conditions at the front; the second describes how they learned about the conditions; and the third describes how horrible the conditions actually are.
  2. The first paragraph describes the way the soldiers got to the front; the second describes the uses of the different weapons; and the third describes the effects of the different weapons on infantry.
  3. The first paragraph describes “those at home” and the homes they live in; the second describes the uses of the different weapons; and the third describes the effects of the different weapons on infantry.
  4. The first paragraph describes what resources “those at home” are reading; the second describes the feelings of the soldiers on the front; and the third describes the assumptions of “those at home.”

Correct answer: 1. This is the correct organization for this passage.

Question 7

What is the impact of the POV shift from third person to second person in the third paragraph of this passage?

  1. It alienates the reader because it makes the reader understand how little they know about the conditions at the front.
  2. It draws the reader closer to the soldiers’ experiences because it directly addresses the reader as “you” and puts the reader into the mud.
  3. It creates sympathy in the reader because it enforces the feeling of fatality that hangs over all the soldiers.
  4. It makes the reader lose interest in the off-putting account.

Correct answer: 2. By directly addressing the reader, the author puts the reader into the scene and makes the experience more vivid.

Question 8

Which persuasive technique is used in the passage?

  1. pathos
  2. personal anecdote
  3. ethos
  4. rhetorical questions

Correct answer: 1. The passage uses pathos because the description of horrible conditions makes the readers feel sympathy.

Question 9

Mrs. Chain is a tenth-grade English teacher. As she is planning the summer reading list, she makes sure to include the following authors: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Elizabeth Stanton, Langston Hughes, Salvador Elizondo, Juan Rulfo, J.D. Salinger, and Ray Bradbury. The greatest benefit to having such a wide variety of authors is:

  1. students with varying levels of cognitive development have multiple authors and writing styles from which to choose.
  2. a reflection of current events.
  3. a reflection of various opinions across diverse topics.
  4. they promote students’ knowledge of various cultures through themselves as literary writers.

Correct answer: 4. The authors represent a wide-variety of cultural backgrounds. Exposing students to multiple writers of various heritages is a great benefit, as the students’ knowledge of the various cultures will be increased.

Question 10

In what ways do small-group conversational activities help improve oral language development?

  1. Students are able to chat with their friends, relieving stress and clearing the mind for more learning.
  2. Students can respond to each other and learn to formulate arguments and critique other’s responses.
  3. The teacher can step back from the discussion and allow students to express themselves.
  4. Students are able to respond to each other in a low-stakes setting, which contributes to higher student involvement.

Correct answer: 2. Bouncing ideas off each other and learning to formulate arguments are important oral language skills, and thus an important byproduct of small group discussions.

Question 11

A dialect is different from a standard language in all of these ways except:

  1. a dialect pronounces words differently than the standard language.
  2. a dialect includes words not commonly accepted in the standard language.
  3. a dialect has its own unique grammatical rules from the standard language.
  4. a dialect blends words and structures of multiple standard languages.

Correct answer: 4. Dialects are variations on the standard language rather than a mixing of different languages.

Question 12

Why might reading and performing poetry be an area in which oral language learners struggle?

  1. Poetry is written in stanzas, not sentences and paragraphs.
  2. Poetry sometimes contains rhyming words.
  3. Poetry has its own unique grammatical and punctuation standards.
  4. Poets often use complicated and figurative language.

Correct answer: 3. Because poetry is often missing punctuation marks found in the standard language, students may have trouble knowing when to stop, pause, or properly inflect while reading.

Question 13

Mrs. Glass, a new teacher, notices the literature that the English language learners are required to read has many difficult words. She discusses the situation with her mentor teacher, who has been teaching English language learners for many years and is experienced with the laws and requirements for English language learner education. Of the following, what is the most appropriate response by the mentor teacher?

  1. The teacher should work with the students to help explain the meaning of the words so the students are exposed to a wide vocabulary.
  2. The teacher should rewrite the text to shorten the difficult words to make the literature more understandable for the students.
  3. The teacher should provide supplemental literature that contains words familiar to the students.
  4. The students should highlight the words they do not know and look them up in a dictionary.

Correct answer: 1. This is the best answer, as literature should not be simplified to accommodate the students. It is the role of the teacher to work with the students to build the students’ vocabulary.

Question 14

What is the most important reason a speaker needs to plan for his specific audience before giving a presentation?

  1. to ensure that subject matter is explained using terms and details the audience will understand
  2. to ensure that he will not be nervous before or during his speech
  3. the skills used in a presentation are the same for any audience; this is not important
  4. to use appropriate volume and tone during his speech

Correct answer: 1. Knowing and preparing for the knowledge level of your audience is important when determining word choice and structure. If a speaker doesn’t take these into account, his audience may lose the message of the presentation. This is the most important reason a speaker should plan for his audience.

Question 15

What is a benefit of providing a rubric for self-evaluation of an oral presentation?

  1. The teacher can take a break from assessment and allow the student to grade himself.
  2. Grading goes more quickly, because all the content and areas are laid out with a corresponding grade.
  3. Students are able to compare themselves to their peers.
  4. Students can understand what they could have done to earn the next level.

Correct answer: 4. Giving students a rubric to use for self-evaluation is an easy way for a student to see where he is on the scale of performance and see what he should do next time to better his performance and skills.

Question 16

Students in Mr. Tulip’s class have just finished a unit learning about the persuasive techniques used in commercials. What activity below would help solidify his students’ understanding of how commercials use persuasive techniques to convince consumers?

  1. an exit ticket after students have watched a sample commercial that tests their understanding of the concept
  2. a summative assessment testing knowledge of persuasive techniques in the media
  3. a project where students write and film a commercial for a made-up product of their own
  4. a short writing assignment where students watch and evaluate a commercial for persuasive techniques

Correct answer: 3. Allowing students to write and perform a commercial using persuasive techniques is the best option for proving they understand the concept.

Questions 17-22 are based on the following excerpt

(1) Whenever travellers penetrate into remote regions where human hunters are unknown, they find the wild things half tame, little afraid of man, and inclined to stare curiously from a distance of a few paces. It takes a long time and much restraint to win back their confidence. This is ideal, a paradise for the naturalist and the camera hunter.

(2) In the early days of the West, when game abounded and when fifty yards was the extreme deadly range of the hunter’s weapons, wild creatures were comparatively tame. The advent of the rifle and of the lawless skin hunter soon turned all big game into fugitives of excessive shyness and wariness. One glimpse of a man half a mile off, or a whiff of him on the breeze, was enough to make a mountain ram or a wolf run for miles, though formerly these creatures would have gazed serenely from a point but a hundred yards removed.

(3) The establishment of the Yellowstone Park in 1872 was the beginning of a new era of protection for wildlife; and, by slow degrees, a different attitude in these animals toward us. In this Reservation, and nowhere else at present in the northwest, the wild things are not only abundant, but they have resumed their traditional Garden-of-Eden attitude toward man.

Question 17

Which of the following statements best expresses the central idea of the passage?

  1. Animals learn to fear men, but the fear can be reversed over time. 
  2. Yellowstone National Park should be a model for other parks. 
  3. Hunting is bad for animal populations. 
  4. It is better to have tame animals.

Correct answer: 1. All paragraphs in the passage relate to this idea. Animals were not afraid of men until they became more of a threat with the advent of the rifle. Then, when protected from hunting in Yellowstone, the animals eventually became more comfortable with the presence of men.

Question 18

Read the first sentence of the excerpt. The author most likely uses the phase “penetrate into remote regions” to convey:

  1. blame toward hunters and travelers.
  2. regret for the inevitable.
  3. impatience for change.
  4. frustration with the destruction of natural habitats.

Correct answer: 1. The word “penetrate” has an aggressive connotation, and “remote” demonstrates how far a person must travel to find these animals. The author chooses these words to present the travelers and hunters as invaders of the animals’ homes.

Question 19

Which of the following statements is an example of an assumption?

  1. Animals came to associate danger with the smell and sounds of humans.
  2. If other locations provide protections for animals like those at Yellowstone, they would also see animals return to being more comfortable around humans. 
  3. Hunting is prohibited inside of Yellowstone National Park.
  4. Rifles allowed for accuracy at significantly farther than 50 yards.

Correct answer: 2. Since Yellowstone is referenced as being the first of its kind and responsible for the change in animal behaviour, we can assume that other locations would have the same results if they followed the same rules as those that are imposed on visitors to Yellowstone.

Question 20

Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the passage?

  1. Other national parks were created to recreate the success of Yellowstone.
  2. Yellowstone National Park was established for the main purpose of protecting animals.
  3. Without the protections offered by the national park, it would be much more difficult to photograph the animals native to that area.
  4. Hunting is no longer considered an acceptable activity by most people.

Correct answer: 3. The first paragraph mentions the struggle of the naturalist and camera hunter when animals are fearful of humans. It is reasonable to conclude that with less fear, these naturalists and camera hunters would have easier access to their animal subjects.

Question 21

What is the relationship between these two sentences from the passage? 

Sentence 1: The advent of the rifle and of the lawless skin hunter soon turned all big game into fugitives of excessive shyness and wariness.

Sentence 2: One glimpse of a man half a mile off, or a whiff of him on the breeze, was enough to make a Mountain Ram or a Wolf run for miles, though formerly these creatures would have gazed serenely from a point but a hundred yards removed.

  1. Sentence 2 provides examples to support the claim in sentence 1.
  2. Sentence 2 describes a contrast with sentence 1.
  3. Sentence 2 contradicts the point made in sentence 1.
  4. Sentence 1 explains the effect, while sentence 2 provides the cause.

Correct answer: 1. Sentence 1 claims that rifles changed how animals reacted to humans. Sentence 2 provides examples of the change.

Question 22

Which of the following statements about reading instruction is most accurate?

  1. Students who do not ask for individualized reading instruction should not be provided individualized reading instruction.
  2. It is best to assess students’ reading comprehension through formal assessments.
  3. Reading comprehension is increased when reading fluency is increased.
  4. Reading should be taught to students by addressing each concept separately.

Correct answer: 3. This is a correct correlation.

Questions 23-24 are based on the following poem.

Glory of Women

Siegfried Sassoon

You love us when we’re heroes, home on leave,


Or wounded in a mentionable place.


You worship decorations; you believe


That chivalry redeems the war’s disgrace.


You make us shells. You listen with delight,


By tales of dirt and danger fondly thrilled.


You crown our distant ardours while we fight,


And mourn our laurelled memories when we’re killed.


You can’t believe that British troops “retire”


When hell’s last horror breaks them, and they run,


Trampling the terrible corpses—blind with blood.


O German mother dreaming by the fire,


While you are knitting socks to send your son


His face is trodden deeper in the mud.

Question 23

What type of poem is “Glory of Women”?

  1. villanelle
  2. epic
  3. sonnet
  4. haiku

Correct answer: 3. “Glory of Women” is a sonnet, with the turn of focus occurring before the sextet.

Question 24

This poem focuses on primarily what major concern of war poets from WWI?

  1. the inescapable sense of worthlessness and isolation that WWI soldiers felt
  2. the difficulty many soldiers had trying to adapt to civilian life
  3. hero worship and the glorification of war
  4. the disparity between the reality of war and civilians’ perception of what war is like

Correct answer: 4. This poem describes the major divide between what war is really like and what those at home thought about it.

Question 25

One significant feature of Shakespearean tragic heroes is that each of them:

  1. must die.
  2. will overcome his or her hardships.
  3. will never know what the future holds.
  4. has a tragic flaw.

Correct answer: 4. Every Shakespearean tragic hero has a tragic flaw.

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