Check out these concepts.
Resonance is produced by the vocal folds and filtered by the pharynx and oral and nasal cavities. The size and shape of the vocal tract enhances or dampens harmonics. Languages contain sounds that are created by a specific ratio of oral to nasal energy. Resonance disorders occur when there is an imbalance in the energy’s ratio caused by both anatomical (e.g., velopharyngeal insufficiency, cleft palate, etc.) and physiological issues (e.g., velopharyngeal incompetence, etc.). A variety of treatment options are available including pharmacological, surgical, and prosthetic management. Our role as speech-language pathologists occur when a resonance disorder is present due to a structure malfunctioning. Therapy techniques can include visual feedback, auditory biofeedback, and teaching correct articulator placement. When treating individuals with resonance disorders, interprofessional collaboration with otolaryngologists and craniofacial teams is crucial in providing appropriate care.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
AAC encompasses an abundance of ways people communicate non-verbally. The two branches of AAC are classified under unaided systems (e.g., uses your own body) and aided systems (e.g., requires something other than your body). Intervention of AAC can include how to use the device, implementing techniques to increase rate, software updates, symbol selection, and choosing appropriate core and fringe vocabulary. To successfully implement an AAC device, a team approach is required with relevant members (e.g., teachers, family, other therapists, physicians, etc.). When determining an appropriate AAC approach and device, many factors are evaluated to find the best fit for the client. Medical diagnosis, feature matching, sensory/physical abilities, language skills, and opportunity/access barriers are some of the areas under consideration.
And that’s some basic info about the exam.
Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.