FTCE Health K-12 Ultimate Guide2020-04-27T19:34:02+00:00

FTCE Health K-12 (019) Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the FTCE Health K-12 (019) exam?

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FTCE Health K-12 (019)

FTCE Health K-12 (019) Quick Facts

The Health K-12 exam tests the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively instruct students on health topics in the classroom.

FormatComputer-based test (CBT)
Number of QuestionsApproximately 120 multiple-choice questions
Time2 hours and 30 minutes
Passing ScoreA scaled score of at least 200

Cost: 

$115

Scoring: 

To pass the FTCE Health K-12 exam, test-takers must receive a scaled score of at least 200 out of 300. 

Study time: 

Test-takers should allow plenty of time to familiarize themselves with the test format and ensure they feel comfortable with the content covered in each competency. While the specific amount of necessary study time will vary from test-taker to test-taker, you should allow yourself several weeks to prepare. Ample preparation time will help you feel prepared and not rushed or overwhelmed. Take time to spend additional time on areas of weakness or concepts that have not been mastered. Our FTCE Health K-12 practice test can help. 

Some tips that test-takers wish they’d known: 

  • Review all test-taking policies prior to arriving at the testing center, including all items that are prohibited in the testing room.
  • Allow ample travel time and be prepared for traffic delays.
  • Make sure you’ve brought all needed materials, including required identification.
  • Dress in layers on testing day, as testing rooms may be warm or chilly.
  • Carefully review test directions, pace your work, and read each question and response carefully. 
  • Believe in yourself and take the test with a positive attitude!

Information and screenshots obtained from the FTCE Health K-12 website.

Competencies

Competency 1 Overview

Competency 1 accounts for about 6% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of the theories, principles, programs, and legislation associated with health education. 

Let’s look at some concepts from this competency.

Theories

Social learning theory, sometimes known as social cognitive theory, was created by Albert Bandura. This theory states that people learn from each other using observation, imitation, and modeling. It includes four major components: self-observation, self-evaluation, self-reaction, and self-efficacy.

Transtheoretical theory, also known as “stages of change,” proposes that individuals move through five stages when working to stop an unhealthy behavior or make a healthy behavior change. The five stages are precontemplative, contemplative, preparation, action, and maintenance.

The health belief model is a commonly used behavior model that uses six components to predict health behavior. The six components are risk susceptibility, risk severity, benefits and action, barriers to action, self-efficacy, and cues to action. 

Programs

Coordinated school health (CHS) programs are designed to increase students’ health and academic achievements in school through a support network of families, communities, and the school working together to meet the needs of students. Coordinated school health programs focus on eight components: safe and healthy school environment, health education, physical education, nutrition, health services, staff health promotion, psychological and counseling services, and family and community involvement.

The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model aims to enhance children’s development by increasing cooperation between schools and health sectors. There are ten components of the WSCC model: physical education and activity, nutrition environment and services, health education, social and emotional school climate, physical environment, health services, counseling, psychological, and social services, employee wellness, community involvement, and family engagement.

Effective Health Education Programs

Health education programs aim to provide students with the knowledge and skills to make suitable health choices. Effective programs utilize numerous resources and involve school staff members, administrators, parents, health care professionals, and community members in the planning, creation, and support of the program and student growth.

Competency 2 Overview

Competency 2 accounts for 6% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of health literacy and identifying and applying both state and national standards for health education. 

Let’s take a look at some concepts that are likely to appear on the test.

Health Literacy

Health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to attain, understand, and make decisions regarding health information. Numerous factors influence the health behaviors of individuals, including physical, mental, work, and life factors. Individuals must learn to identify accurate information and not fall for false information or common misconceptions. 

Health Standards for Health Education

Health educators should utilize both state and national health standards when planning and teaching health education lessons. 

The National Health Education Standards (NHES) are written expectations for what students should know and be able to do by grades 2, 5, 8, and 12 that promote personal, family, and community health. The national standards can be utilized by health educators to guide curriculum and assessment development. 

The Florida Department of Education utilizes a comprehensive health education program to encourage students to maintain their health, avoid disease, and avoid or decrease the risk of health-related issues. The comprehensive health education program entails 12 component areas: community health, consumer health, environmental health, family life, injury prevention and safety, internet safety, mental and emotional health, nutrition, personal health, prevention and control of disease, substance use and abuse, and teen dating violence.

Competency 3 Overview

Competency 3 accounts for 10% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of instructional practices in health education, including identifying health needs, planning effective health education programming, meeting the needs of diverse groups, effectively implementing health education programs, and assessing their effectiveness. This competency also focuses on how to identify effective health resources, effectively provide and communicate health resources to intended audiences, and assess students’ growth towards health literacy. 

Here are some concepts you need to know.

Health Education

Health education teachers teach content to help students make informed decisions regarding their health. Health education teachers should keep lessons engaging in order to keep students motivated. There are a variety of instructional strategies that can be utilized in the health classroom, including direct instruction, cooperative learning, guided discovery, brainstorming, role-playing, and peer teaching. 

The curriculum and lessons should be aligned with national, state, and local district standards, and instruction should be sequential. Instruction that is integrated helps students realize how health topics fit into other aspects of life and subject areas. Lessons should be differentiated to address diverse groups of students and meet individual needs. A variety of assessments should be utilized regularly to ensure that students are mastering the concepts taught. 

Assessment

Assessment tools can be utilized to determine the effectiveness of health education programs. The Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) is a common assessment tool designed to assist school districts and schools conduct clear, consistent analysis of health education curricula based on the National Health Education Standards and the CDC’s Characteristics of an Effective Health Education Curriculum.

Communication 

Health education teachers should utilize a variety of means to communicate health information to students, parents, and community members. Some common means include advertising, entertainment education, and interventions, as well as the teaching of media literacy to help students identify reliable information for themselves. 

Competency 4 Overview

Competency 4 accounts for 6% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of concepts and components of wellness, including the benefits and consequences of personal health choices as well as goal-setting and decision-making techniques. 

Check out these concepts.

Wellness

Wellness often takes on numerous meanings, but it encompasses many areas that affect an individual’s ability to thrive, enjoy life, and meet the challenges they encounter. The choices individuals make on a daily basis influence wellness both positively and negatively. Positive wellness choices include not smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and receiving regular medical care. Unhealthy wellness choices include eating junk food, not exercising regularly, smoking, consuming alcohol to excess, and not getting enough sleep. Achieving wellness is a process that consists of multiple components, including physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social, environmental, occupational, financial, and cultural wellness. 

Goal Setting

There are many benefits to goal-setting, but it is important to set realistic goals that are achievable. The attributes of realistic goals can be remembered using the acronym SMART:

S: specific

M: measurable

A: attainable

R: relevant

T: time-bound

Competency 5 Overview

Competency 5 accounts for 6% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of human anatomy and physiology and how anatomy and physiology are connected to health. This competency also tests your understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the human body throughout life and how movement, rest, and sleep affect the body. 

Be sure and know the following concepts.

Human Body Systems

The human body is made up of a variety of body systems that work together to allow the body to function properly and perform daily tasks. The body systems are the circulatory, digestive, lymphatic, endocrine, integumentary, muscular, nervous, urinary, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal systems. 

Anatomy and Physiology 

Anatomy refers to the study of the shape and structure of the body, body parts, and their relationships. Physiology refers to the study of how the body and its parts work. Anatomy and physiology correlate because anatomy focuses on organs and their relationships, while physiology studies how the same organs assist the entire body as part of larger organ systems. These relationships are important in health education. If individuals do not understand the parts and structure of the body, it is extremely difficult for them to learn how the parts function together and make life possible. 

Physiological Changes

The human body experiences numerous physiological changes over the course of a lifetime. During infancy and early childhood, growth occurs rapidly and many changes are experienced, including changes in body size and weight. Children also experience changes with new experiences such as learning to kick a ball, run, hop on one foot, or use utensils or scissors. Adolescents experience additional changes during puberty, including growth spurts, breast development, hair growth, and an increase in sweating. Additional changes occur during adulthood, but the changes associated with aging are often more noticeable for the elderly. Some common changes in the elderly include the heart working harder, the bones weakening, a loss of body strength, an increase in body weight, wrinkles, and gray hair. 

Competency 6 Overview

Competency 6 accounts for 6% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases as well as the benefits and key screenings for prevention and early intervention. 

Let’s look at some concepts that are likely to be on the test.

Communicable Diseases

Communicable diseases are illnesses that are spread from one individual to another or from an animal to a human. Communicable diseases are often referred to as infectious diseases. They are typically spread through direct contact with a sick individual, breathing in airborne bacteria or viruses, contact with bodily fluids or blood, contact with contaminated surfaces, or insect or animal bites. Common communicable diseases include the common cold, influenza, hepatitis, and malaria. Communicable diseases can be prevented by receiving appropriate vaccinations and washing your hands regularly, including before and after eating and after coughing or sneezing. 

Noncommunicable Diseases

Noncommunicable diseases are illnesses or health conditions that cannot be spread from person to person. Noncommunicable diseases are often referred to as chronic diseases. Common noncommunicable diseases include cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. Noncommunicable diseases typically result from a variety of health factors, including genetics and physiological, environmental, and lifestyle factors. These lifestyle factors can include an unhealthy diet, irregular exercise, smoking, and excessive alcohol use. Noncommunicable diseases can be prevented by eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, avoiding too much alcohol, getting ample sleep, and being aware of one’s family health history. There are three approaches for preventing common chronic diseases: primary (legislation, education, and immunization), secondary (daily exercise), and tertiary (chronic disease management programs) prevention.

Screenings and Detection

Early detection is vital in identifying a disease and preventing it from worsening. Meeting with a genetic counselor can help determine whether an individual is carrying genes that make certain noncommunicable diseases more likely. Common screenings include mammograms, pap smears, prostate exams, and colonoscopies. 

Competency 7 Overview

Competency 7 accounts for 8% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of interpersonal health and your understanding of how various relationships influence one’s health. Your understanding of coping skills, communication skills, and how to use community resources to aid in positive social development is also addressed. 

Check out these concepts.

Interpersonal Behavior 

Interpersonal behavior refers to actions and behaviors in relationships, which include verbal communication and nonverbal communication such as body language and facial expressions. 

Numerous dynamics come into play when examining the ways families and individuals communicate with others. Some factors include interpersonal dynamics, cultural dynamics, and social dynamics. 

  • Interpersonal dynamics are the ways in which body language, facial expressions, and other nonverbal mannerisms communicate a verbal message, and the relationship between a person’s words and nonverbal messages.
  • Cultural dynamics are the various facets of a culture, including traditions, language, relationships, dress, beliefs, and taboos.
  • Social dynamics are the interactions and relationships between members of the group or family. 

Coping is the ability to manage personal and interpersonal problems in order to minimize or tolerate stress and conflict. There are numerous strategies and skills that can assist individuals in healthy coping, including support, relaxation, problem-solving, physical activity, and humor. 

Social Development 

Social development refers to the process by which individuals, especially children, learn to interact with those around them. Social development plays a role in many situations and experiences, including friendships, positive interactions, conflict resolution, word development, peer pressure resistance, and more. Communities play a vital role in helping individuals, especially children, develop socially in a positive way. Effective early childhood programs, community experiences, and access to health professionals are important to social development. 

Competency 8 Overview

Competency 8 accounts for 9% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of sexual development, including both healthy and unhealthy relationships, throughout various stages. Research-based strategies for preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections are also addressed. 

Let’s move on to discuss some more concepts.

Sexual Development 

Sexual development is often considered during puberty and the teen years; however, sexual development starts during infancy. Primary and secondary sexual characteristics are physical traits that separate males and females. Primary sexual characteristics are present at birth and refer to actual reproductive organs like the testes and ovaries. Secondary sexual characteristics appear during puberty and include indicators such as body hair, voice changes, and breasts. 

Relationships

It is vital that individuals, no matter their age, engage in healthy, age- and developmentally-appropriate relationships throughout life. Healthy relationships involve honesty, open communication, trust, and respect, while unhealthy relationships are harmful to those involved. Warning signs of unhealthy relationships include continual put-downs, jealousy, isolation, dishonesty, and physical violence and control. 

Adolescents and teens are continually faced with situations that involve sexual activity, including peer pressure. Health education teachers should teach sexual health to equip students with the facts and decision-making skills needed to make responsible choices. 

Sexual Activity

Common safe sex practices include abstinence, latex condoms, spermicide with condom use, and contraceptives. Abstinence refers to the choice to not participate in any form of sexual activity and is the only 100 percent effective way to prevent pregnancy and/or STIs. 

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are acquired by sexual contact and pass from person to person through semen, vaginal fluid, blood, saliva, and sometimes skin-to-skin contact. Common STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and oral and genital herpes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) weakens a person’s immune system by destroying important cells that help fight disease and infections. People with HIV can develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The best way to prevent STIs is to practice abstinence. Other common ways to prevent STIs include using condoms, having fewer partners, and getting vaccinated (i.e. HPV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B).

Competency 9 Overview

Competency 9 accounts for 7% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of nutrition recommendations based on body weight and daily activity levels, as well as, the benefits of proper nutrition and physical activity. Obesity and the signs, symptoms, and risks of eating disorders are also addressed. 

Be sure to know the following concepts.

Nutrition

MyPlate is a diagram showing the types of food and portion size recommendations produced by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). MyPlate recommends filling half your plate with vegetables and fruits. The other half should be filled with mostly grains and some lean protein. 

In addition to following MyPlate guidelines, food labels on food items can be used to help improve eating habits. Reading food labels can help individuals in their efforts to consume less fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar. 

Nutrition and Exercise

Proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and healthy body weight are key components of an individual’s overall well-being and health. Together, a healthy diet and physical activity can help decrease an individual’s risk of developing serious health conditions, chronic diseases, and some forms of cancer. They can also benefit individuals by strengthening muscles and bones, improving mood and energy levels, and decreasing obesity risks. 

Exercise Prescription and Fitness Assessment

Exercise prescription refers to a plan or activity program designed by a professional to enhance the well-being and health of the patient. This is becoming more common with health professionals as a means of prescribing exercise to their patients, just as they typically prescribe medicine. Exercise prescriptions vary, but they typically follow the FITT principles. FITT is an acronym that stands for frequency, intensity, time, and type. 

Fitness assessments are often given to assess cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. There are a variety of fitness assessment programs available. A common fitness assessment for students is the FitnessGramⓇ fitness assessment. 

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are serious health conditions that result in unhealthy eating habits. Typically they start with an obsession related to food, body weight, or body image. Two of the most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. 

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, distorted body perceptions, and fear of gaining weight. Typically, individuals with anorexia limit their calories or use laxatives, diet aids, or extreme exercise to lose weight. 

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by periods of bingeing and purging. Typically, individuals with bulimia feel that they have a lack of control over their eating. Bulimics often eat large amounts of food in a short time period and then force vomiting or take laxatives to rid their body of the food and associated calories. 

Competency 10 Overview

Competency 10 accounts for 7% of the entire exam. 

This competency tests your knowledge of both positive and negative mental and emotional health. It addresses mental health disorders and their effects, as well as mental health resources for support and assistance. The psychosocial and physiological effects of stress and effective stress management strategies are also addressed. 

The following concepts are important to know.

Mental Health

Mental health is a combination of our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Biological factors, life experiences, and family history can all contribute to mental health disorders. Common warning signs of mental health disorders include eating or sleeping too much, loss of previous interests, lack of energy, feeling hopeless or indifferent, persistent thoughts, mood swings, thoughts of harming oneself or others, and the inability to perform daily tasks. Mental health disorders can affect individuals and their families, peers, and community. 

Stress

Stress refers to a feeling of emotional or physical tension. Stress often results from events that cause individuals to feel frustrated, anxious, or angry, and is how your body reacts to a challenge or difficult situation. While stress can be positive (as when it helps you to avoid a dangerous situation), most consider stress to be negative. 

Stress often negatively affects individuals’ lives. Common physical, psychological, and emotional signs of stress include rapid heart rate, fatigue, increased blood pressure, feelings of being overwhelmed, sleep difficulties, and persistent thoughts of stressors. Continual stress can result in health problems such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. 

Stress Management 

Individuals who learn to deal with stress tend to lead happier, healthier lives. Individuals with symptoms of stress should take steps to manage stress. Some common strategies for managing stress include: 

  • getting regular physical activity
  • practicing relaxation strategies
  • eating healthy, balanced meals
  • limiting caffeine
  • setting limits and learning to say “no”
  • spending time with family and participating in hobbies and interests
  • getting ample sleep
  • avoiding smoking, alcohol, and drugs
  • seeking support from a psychologist or mental health professional

Competency 11 Overview

Competency 11 accounts for 9% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of the risks, symptoms, and side effects of substance use and abuse. Resources for prevention and seeking help for the treatment of substance use and abuse are addressed. 

What follows are important concepts from this competency.

Substance Abuse

Substance abuse refers to the use of illegal drugs or the use of legal substances wrongly or in excessive amounts. Substances are often abused because they create a pleasurable “high” that helps individuals feel good, decrease stress, or avoid problems. Substances that are commonly abused include alcohol, over-the-counter medications, heroin, cocaine, marijuana, and tobacco products. 

Just like other common diseases, there are risk factors associated with substance abuse. Some common risk factors include family history, stress, depression, and environmental influences such as peer usage or exposure to physical abuse. 

Preventing Substance Abuse

While we are unable to ensure that an individual will not abuse drugs and alcohol, there are some ways to make it less likely. Preventive behaviors that can help with this include surrounding yourself with role models, developing healthy coping skills to alleviate symptoms, being aware of your family history, and living a balanced life.

Treating Substance Abuse

Numerous options exist for treating substance abuse and addiction. Depending on the specific addiction, various combinations of therapies can be utilized to help addicted individuals stop using, prevent relapse, and become productive at home and in society. Common therapies used for substance abuse include behavioral counseling, 12-step programs, medications, and medical devices for withdrawal treatment. In addition, treatment may involve either inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation and long-term care to prevent relapse. 

 

Effects on Others

Not only does substance abuse negatively affect the user, substance abuse can also be hurtful to others, including family members, friends, and the community. Some common areas that may be affected include finances, jobs, relationships, friendships, and communities. Communities with high incidences of substance abuse often see more break-ins, criminal behaviors, and drug dealing. 

Competency 12 Overview

Competency 12 accounts for 7% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of various types of violence, their characteristics, and the factors associated with violent and abusive behaviors. The effects of bullying, harassment, and hazing are addressed, as well as how schools and communities can intercede and prevent violent behaviors. 

Check out some more concepts.

Violence

Violence refers to the use of physical force to harm, abuse, or destroy. Some common types of violence include physical, sexual, emotional, psychological, and economic violence or abuse. Many factors contribute to acts of violence and abuse. Individual risk factors may include a low IQ, a history of aggressive behavior, or exposure to violence in the family. Family risk factors for violence or abuse include low parental involvement, inconsistent or poor disciplinary practices, and low parental education and income. Association with peers that have a criminal record, gang involvement, and lack of involvement in positive activities are peer and social risk factors for violence. Community risk factors include communities with high levels of transiency, limited economic opportunities, and large numbers of residents living below poverty. 

Violence is common on social media due to the lack of face-to-face interaction. Any threats or violence should be reported to authorities immediately. 

Harassment

Harassment refers to verbal or physical badgering based on sex, religion, or race. This includes racial slurs, name-calling, insults, and offensive jokes or pictures.

Sexual harassment involves uninvited comments, conduct, or behavior regarding sex, sexual orientation, and/or gender. 

Bullying

Bullying refers to unwanted aggressive behavior that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. Repetitive bullying behaviors have negative effects on both the victim and the bully. Bullies should be dealt with immediately because often bullies often escalate their attacks once they realize the victim is not standing up for themselves. Anyone being bullied should tell an adult immediately. Schools should teach students strategies to deal with bullies and bullying prevention should be a school focus. 

Intimidation 

Intimidation refers to purposely frightening, causing fear, or threatening injury to an individual. Causing someone to feel inferior or inadequate is intimidation. 

Competency 13 Overview

Competency 13 accounts for 3% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of effective evaluation of health information, products, and services, including the role of the media. The relationship between health laws and practices are addressed, as well as, alternative medicine and holistic health. 

Be sure to review these concepts.

Health Laws

Consumer Health Laws are laws that ensure that health products are safe and effective and that health professionals are adequately qualified, and that government agencies enforce laws to keep the public safe and informed. 

Valid Health Information 

Health information is everywhere and it is important for individuals to learn to distinguish between valid and invalid sources of information. Who should one trust? Which information is accurate? Who is simply trying to sell a product? 

Sources of information that are likely to be valid and a helpful resource include government websites and information distributed by hospitals or health care providers. Some reliable sources to reference include the CDC, WHO, WebMD, USFDA, and The Mayo Clinic. 

Individuals should also be aware of false claims and inaccurate marketing. Consumers must check ingredient lists and not be fooled by marketing or claims on packaging. Furthermore, be aware of quackery. Quackery refers to the promotion of fraudulent medical information or care. Do not fall for “magic” pills or treatments. 

Holistic Health and Alternative Medicine 

Holistic health refers to a form of healing that focuses on the whole being’s body, mind, and spirit. Holistic health typically involves alternative means of treatment and or medication. Alternative medicine refers to the use of medical treatments that are different from traditional therapies or treatments. Some examples of holistic health and alternative medicine include chiropractors, herbalism, massage, meditation, and acupuncture.

Competency 14 Overview

Competency 14 accounts for 3% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of utilizing data to determine a community’s level of risk and the necessary steps to decrease risk levels. The role of health policies, government regulations, and resources on community health is addressed. 

The following two concepts are important to know.

Community Risk Assessment

Multiple factors influence the overall health of communities. A community risk assessment should be conducted to assess hazards, vulnerabilities, and risks to community members. Once these risks are outlined communities can look at their ability to cope and develop plans to cope and decrease risks. A community’s access to various types of health care services and education should be considered. Accessibility to health education and health care services decreases a community’s level of risk. 

Public Health

Public health focuses on promoting and protecting the health of individuals and communities where life, work, and play occur. Public health focuses on promoting healthy behaviors and preventing unhealthy behaviors and sickness. Government and public health officials take steps to educate community members, encourage vaccinations to prevent the spread of disease, provide access to healthy meals for students, track diseases and sickness, and assure access to quality health care services. Community risk assessments help public health officials determine areas of vulnerabilities so that changes and improvements can be made.

Competency 15 Overview

Competency 15 accounts for 3% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of environmental health and hazards that affect individuals and communities. Strategies for improving the quality of the environment are addressed.

Almost there! Check out these concepts.

Environmental Health 

Environmental health is the condition of the environment in a community, which includes factors that affect human health and disease. Environmental hazards such as contaminated water, air, soil, and food negatively affect communities. 

Practices such as reducing, reusing, and recycling help the environment by reducing the amount of waste in landfills and conserving natural resources and energy. Individuals can reuse products or buy used items, use reusable bags, or donate items no longer needed. Many household items can be recycled, including cardboard, newspapers, plastic, and glass. Simple steps can be taken to conserve energy by turning off lights when not in the room, taking shorter showers, and switching to LED light bulbs. 

Air pollution and the ozone can cause coughing, wheezing, and even respiratory distress, especially for individuals with COPD, asthma, or lung diseases. Individuals can help to reduce air pollution by carpooling, utilizing public transportation, walking, using gas logs in fireplaces, and using environmentally safe paints and cleaning products. 

Competency 16 Overview

Competency 16 accounts for 4% of the entire exam.

This competency tests your knowledge of unintentional injuries and safety practices for children, adolescents, and adults at home, at school, and in the community. Emergency plans, procedures, and prevention are addressed. 

Here are the last few concepts to know.

Unintentional injuries

Unintentional injuries are injuries that occur without any intention of harm. Some common examples of unintentional injuries include automobile accidents, fire/burn injuries, falls, drownings, and poisonings. Injuries related to transportation, either as an occupant in a motor vehicle or as a pedestrian or cyclist, are the leading cause of death for children, especially in children ages 5-19. However, suffocation was the leading cause of death for children under one and drowning for children between ages one and four. Motor vehicles are the leading cause of unintentional injuries for adolescents and adults. Overall, unintentional injuries tend to be the third leading cause of death in the U.S. behind heart disease and cancer. 

Emergency Plans

First aid is the initial care given to an individual who is injured or experiencing psychological distress or sickness before medical assistance arrives. Individuals who provide emergency care should remember to utilize proper universal precautions. 

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, commonly known as CPR, provides oxygenated blood to the brain of an individual who has just suffered cardiac arrest. Trained individuals can provide CPR in emergency situations, but should call 911 and ensure the scene is safe before beginning care. 

An AED is an automated device that is simple to use and delivers a therapeutic electric shock to the heart of a victim who has just suffered sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Many schools and public buildings have an AED in a central location for use during a cardiac emergency.

Families, schools, and communities should have detailed emergency plans in place to efficiently handle emergency situations. Some emergency situations to consider and plan for include fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, and intruders. 

And that’s some basic information about the test.

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