CSET Social Studies Ultimate Guide 2018-10-23T19:20:05+00:00

CSET Social Science: Ultimate Guide and Practice Test

Preparing to take the CSET Social Science exam?

Good!

You’ve found the right page. We will answer every question you have and tell you exactly what you need to study to pass the CSET Social Science exam.

In fact, we will cover all three subtests of the exam.

CSET: Social Science Overview

CSET Social Science is a required exam for any California educators who plan to teach a social science at the secondary level.

There are 3 subtests:

  1. World History and World Geography
  2. S. History and U.S. Geography
  3. Civics, Economics, and California History

You can register to take any one subtest or all three subtests in a single test session.

The exam is a computer-based test, but don’t worry, you just need basic computer skills. If you made it to this point in your education and career, you have nothing to worry about.

Here is the subtest format:

If you take all three subtests at once, you will have six hours and fifteen minutesto complete the entire exam. You will be presented with one subtest at a time. Subtests are individually timed and are administered in consecutive order.

If you do not take all three subtests at once, the time allotment is as follows:

  • Subtest I: 2 hours and 15 minutes
  • Subtest II: 2 hours and 15 minutes
  • Subtest II: 1 hour and 45 minutes

Frequently Asked Questions About the CSET: Social Science

Quick Facts

Cost:$99 per subtest

$297 for all subtests taken together

Dates and Locations:Tests are by appointment only, year-round. Click hereto find a testing site near you.

What to Bring:You must bring one piece of current, government-issued identification printed in English, in the name in which you registered, bearing your photograph and signature. Click herefor more info.

Number of Attempts:There are no limits on how many times you can take the test before you pass; however, you do have to wait 45 days between testing attempts.

Scoring: You need to score at least 220 points per subtest. All three subtests must be passed. You can expect your official score within seven weeks.

For CSET policies and rules, click here.

Register for the CSET Social Science exam here.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long will the CSET Social Science exam take me?

If you take all three subtests in a single session, you will have 6 hours and 15 minutes to complete the exam but expect to be at the testing site longer. It takes time to get checked in and get started. Plan to arrive at least 15 minutes before your appointment time.

If you do not take all three subtests at once, the time allotment is as follows:

  • Subtest I: 2 hours and 15 minutes
  • Subtest II: 2 hours and 15 minutes
  • Subtest III: 1 hour and 45 minutes

What can I expect when I arrive at the testing site to take the CSET Social Science exam?

When you get there, expect to have your identification checked, your photo taken, your palm scanned, and to give your digital signature. You will also be asked to place your belongings in secure storage.

Do I get a break during the CSET Social Science exam?

Any time taken for breaks is considered part of your available testing time.

What is a constructed response question?

In most states, constructed response questions (CRQ) are part of educational testing for teachers. These kinds of questions require the test-taker to produce or construct the answer and are considered an additional measure to better assess test-takers subject knowledge. CRQ can be as simple as the writing of a sentence or as complex at the design of a lesson plan.

Click here to learn more about constructed response questions and how to prepare for them.

How do I pass the CSET Social Science exam?

To pass the CSET Social Science test, you must first understand what is on the exam and what you will be expected to know. The best way is to review the 240Tutoring test breakdown materials and practice questions. Once you identify areas of weakness, you can begin targeting those areas with instructional content and practice questions.

How is the CSET Social Science exam scored?

You must score at least 220 points on each subtest to pass the exam. Click herefor more information on scoring. 

Is the CSET Social Science exam hard? 

Yea, it’s challenging. The cumulative passing rate for the CSET Social Science exam is about 80%.

*Source: Annual Report on Passing Rates of Commission-Approved Examinations from 2010-2011 to 2014-2015.

You have to study quality, trusted sources (like 240Tutoring).

CSET: Social Science Top 5 Tips

  • Make sure to answer every question (even if you guess)

  • Know how much time you have left

  • Eliminate incorrect answers first

  • Work through practice questions so you know what to expect

  • Understandhow to write a Constructed Response Question

CSET Social Science: World History and World Geography

Overview

You will have 135 minutes to complete 39 multiple-choice questions and 3 constructed-response questions.

Subtest I has two parts: World History and World Geography. They can be further broken down into these big (really big) time periods and concepts:

  • World History
    • Ancient Civilizations
    • Medieval and Early Modern Times
    • Modern World History
  • World Geography
    • Tools and Perspectives
    • Diversity and Human Societies
    • Culture and the Physical Environment

Ready? Let’s dive into World History.

World History

This section tests your knowledge on important world events, people, and ideas from the past.

Let’s talk about what you need to know about each time period in World history.

Ancient Civilizations

First, you have to know how humankind evolved, both physically and culturally, from the Paleolithic era (Stone Age) to the agricultural revolution. Remember, the agricultural revolution occurred from about 10,000 B.C. to 2,000 B.C. It describes the transition from hunting and gathering to farming.

Also, be able to critically think about how early humans interacted with the environment and how those interactions impacted the development of several ancient civilizations like the Fertile Crescent, Persia, Egypt, Kush, Greece, India, China, Rome, and pre-Columbian America.

For each major ancient civilization, you need to know its religious, social, economic, and political structure and its major accomplishments and contributions. You also need to be able to identify some modern western thinking that originated from those specific ancient civilizations.

Finally, take time to research ancient Chinese and Indian traditions, like Taoism and Hinduism, that form the foundation for Asian political and philosophical structures.

Those are some really (really) broad concepts to think about and study.

Medieval and Early Modern Times

For these questions, you need to know the impact of geography on the development of medieval and early-modern civilizations. Think about water. Most major cities founded during these times are by a river or water source. This is because humans need freshwater and water was the fastest and easiest form of transportation until the invention of the steam engine and railroads.

Be sure to know the major events that led to the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. Investigate these two civilization’s views on religion, culture, society, and politics.

Think about the religions of Christianity and Islam. Be able to describe the expansion of Christianity during this time and the basic tenets of Islam.

Know what feudalism is and how it developed in Europe and Japan.

You also need to know about the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of North and South America, Asia, and Africa between A.D. 500 and the end of the 18thcentury.

Finally, be really familiar with the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment.

Whew.

 Modern World History

For these questions, you need to know about these events, time periods, and/or ideologies and their lasting impacts on the world:

  • Age of Exploration
  • The Enlightenment
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution
  • Nationalism
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Imperialism
  • Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917
  • World War I
  • Fascism
  • Communism
  • World War II
  • Cold War
  • Globalization
  • Genocide (the Holocaust, Armenian genocide)
  • Conflict in the Middle East

Important note! The critical thing to know about these events, time periods, and ideologies is their lasting impact on society, politics, culture, the economy, etc. Just knowing what these are and when they happened is not enough. Think super deep!

Specific Concepts for World History

Right now, I’m going to give you five specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Notable Contributions of Ancient Egypt

The most notable contributions from Ancient Egypt are their advancements in mathematics, written language (hieroglyphics), and agricultural and military technology.

Their most famous achievement is the creation of the Great Pyramids. The pyramids epitomize Egyptian cultural advancements because they are geometrically perfect, the labor force was sustained through agricultural advancements that allowed large amounts of land to be cultivated with less labor, and they were not under threat of attack.

Islam

In A.D. 622, Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca. He prophetically founded a new religion, Islam, meaning “submission to the will of God.” Muhammad and his followers were positioned to spread the new religion because they were travelers and a people of trade.

Eventually a religious army of followers spread the faith through the Middle East and to North Africa and into Spain. Towards the east, Islam spread to India, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The teachings of Islam are studied in the Koran.

Check out this resource on the Five Pillars of Islam.

The Renaissance

The Renaissance, which means “rebirth”, was a philosophical and artistic movement that began in northern Italy. It was an era of renewed interest in the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome.

The Crusades led to an opening of trade routes with the Arabic nations; the Arabic nations had preserved manuscripts of the ancient cultures and shared these documents with traders. The wealth gained in trading brought power to the merchant class, and a few Italian families grew rich as bankers. They became patrons of the arts and saw art as a social status icon.

The renewed interest in science and scientific truths led to the founding of universities for further academic study. The increase of scientific experimentation and the discovery of laws governing the natural world reduced belief in the church; “mystical events” could now be explained through science.

The American Revolution

The American Revolution of 1776 was an uprising of the colonies in America and greatly influenced by the philosophy of John Locke. The grievances of the colonists centered around being taxed without have legal representation in Parliament. The taxes imposed on the colonists resulted from the French and Indian Wars. The cost of the wars was very high, and   the English wished to pay the expenses by taxing the colonists.

Additionally, the crown forbade the colonies from migrating to the land west of the Appalachian Mountains and into the Ohio Valley. The colonists wanted to trade with other countries in order to get a better price for their goods but were barred from trading with other countries because the idea of mercantilism viewed colonists as being created for the benefit of the parent countries and trading with other nations was harmful to the parent nations.

The French Revolution

The French Revolution of 1789 was to some degree inspired by the American war for   independence. In the French government, the king was absolute. He had unlimited powers over all of his countrymen. The class system was divided into three groups called estates. The first estate was the rich nobility who paid no taxes, as did the second estate. The third estate made up 97 percent of the population and paid the taxes.

After the taxes, there was little income left for citizens in the third estate to purchase basic necessities. The French middle class, the bourgeoisie, led the fight for the ideas of the philosophers Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu. They called for a separation of powers,  just like the colonists in the United States.

The fight began with the storming of the Bastille and ended with the ascension of Napoleon to power. The significance of the war was the establishment of democratic ideals- liberty, equality, and fraternity- throughout the continent of Europe.

You need to be able to compare and contrast the American Revolution and the French Revolution and identify their lasting impacts on the world.

That’s it for World History. Are you overwhelmed? Is it becoming clear that a thorough study guide is exactly what you need to succeed?

Let’s move on to World Geography.

World Geography

This section will include questions about the physical features of the world and its people.

You need to know how to read and use maps and map projections because you will definitely see both on the test. Be sure you know how to locate important places and regions and explain their importance.

You also need to be able to describe and explain the diversity of different locations and the people who live in each. Be familiar with terms like:

  • climate
  • terrain
  • density
  • distribution
  • growth
  • demographic transition
  • culture
  • place identification

Finally, think about the relationships between people and the physical environment. More specifically, think about the past relationships (settlement patterns) and current and future relationships that shape environmental policies.

These competencies are very broad. My best advice to you is to find a great study guide to lead you through potential content you may see on the test.

Specific Concepts for World Geography

Right now, I’m going to give you three specific concepts to be familiar with because they could appear on the test.

World Climates

Climate is the average weather for a given place or location. Temperature and precipitation are the two defining characteristics of climate. These, in turn, are determined by various factors, including elevation, mountain barriers, land and water distribution, and latitude. The Earth has ten distinct climates:

  • Tropical rainforest
  • Savannah
  • Desert
  • Mediterranean
  • Humid subtropical
  • Marine
  • Humid continental
  • Steppe
  • Taiga
  • Tundra

You need to know what each of these climates are and their characteristics.

Patterns of Settlements

Cities developed based upon site and situation. Site is the physical setting, and situation is how it relates to factors such as available building resources, water supply, food supply, roads, and available natural resources for consumption.

For example, New York was an ideal site for settlement because of the excellent natural harbor. It was the age of sea trade and a safe harbor was essential for growth.

The hot and dry climate of the Australian interior led to the settlement of the coastal area where temperature, humidity, and water supply was more promising. Today, about 90 percent of the population lives in urban areas on or very near the coast in cities such as Sydney,  Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Human-Environment Interaction

Geographers are particularly interested in the interaction between humans and their environment, specifically the way environment impacts the development of culture, and how human activity shapes the environment.

Human interaction with the environment resulted originally from efforts to obtain basic human wants: food, shelter, and clothing. Over time, as wants have become more complex, humans have exerted increasing control over the environment, attempting to shape it to their desires.

And that’s some basic info about the World History and World Geography subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

We’ve got the best study guides for the CSET: Social Studies test. So, if you’re feeling overwhelmed and you don’t even know where to begin to figure out how to teach phonemic awareness or how to identify the different characteristics of the stages of writing, we’ve got you covered.

You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the CSET: Social Studies study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

Get the Study Guide

CSET Social Science: U.S History and U.S. Geography

Overview

You will have 135 minutes to complete 39 multiple-choice questions and 3 constructed-response questions.

Subtest II has two parts: U.S. History and U.S. Geography. They can be further broken down into these big time periods and concepts:

  • U.S. History
    • Pre-Revolutionary Era and the War for Independence
    • The Development of the Constitution and the Early Republic
    • The Emergence of a New Nation
    • Civil War and Reconstruction
    • The “Gilded Age”
    • The U.S. as a World Power
    • The 1920s
    • The Great Depression and the New Deal
    • World War II
    • Post-World War II America
    • Post-World War II U.S. Foreign Policy
    • Civil Rights Movement
  • U.S. Geography
    • Tools and Perspectives
    • Diversity and Human Societies
    • Culture and the Physical Environment

So, let’s start with U.S. History.

U.S. History

This section tests your knowledge on important American events, people, and ideas from the past.

Let’s talk about what you need to know about each time period in United States history.

Pre-Revolutionary Era and the War for Independence

This time period extends from early European exploration to the War for Independence (also known as the American Revolutionary War).

You need to know the early American Indian groups and how they contributed to American society.

Think about the European struggle for control of North America, the beginning of the 13 colonies, and European rule over those colonies.

You also need to know about the introduction of African slavery to the U.S.

Finally, research the American Revolutionary War. Be aware of the causes, major battles, major players, and the impact of the war on the American people.

The Development of the Constitution and the Early Republic

This time period centers around the writing, ratification, and implementation of the Constitution.

You need to know about the political system of the U.S. and the effects of the Enlightenment on the writing of these important documents:

  • The Declaration of Independence
  • Articles of Confederation
  • The Federalist Papers
  • The Constitution
  • The Bill of Rights

Also, know about the problems regarding the ratification of the Constitution, mostly centering around the Federalist and Anti-Federalists.

The Emergence of a New Nation

This time period extends from the ratification of the Constitution (1788) to the beginning of the Civil War (1861).

You need to know the different early political parties and their major successes and failures and early foreign policy.

Also, think about the settlement of the West, like Manifest Destiny, the geographic features that influenced this settlement, and U.S. attitudes towards American Indians.

Finally, read about slavery during this time and these specific movements:

  • The Second Great Awakening
  • The temperance movement
  • The early women’s movement
  • Utopianism 

Civil War and Reconstruction

This time period extends from the Civil War (1861) through the Reconstruction Era (1863-1877).

The main things you need to know about this time period are the causes of the Civil War, the strengths and weaknesses of the Union and the Confederacy, the major events and turning points of the Civil War, and the various impacts of the war.

Finally, read about the Reconstruction Era, specifically about issues regarding race like segregation laws, the growth of white supremacist groups, and the 13th, 14th, and 15thamendments.

The “Gilded Age”

This time period extends from the 1870s to about 1900. Mark Twain dubbed this time period the “Gilded Age” because things looked really good on the surface but were actually pretty bad in reality.

You need to know about industrialization during this time period and the ideas of Populism and Progressivism.

Finally, read about the federal Indian policy and the impact of industrialization and urbanization on the U.S. environments.

The U.S. as a World Power

This time period centers around the early 20thcentury.

For this time period, you have to know about the American imperialistic policies surrounding the Spanish-American War.

Also, know the significance of these:

  • the Panama Canal
  • the “Open Door” policy with China
  • “Big Stick” Diplomacy
  • “Dollar” Diplomacy
  • Moral Diplomacy

Finally, you need to know about the consequences and impact of World War I on America.

The 1920s

This time period covers, bet you can’t guess, the 1920s!

For this jazzy period, you need to know about these specific happenings and groups:

  • the Red Scare
  • Back to Africa movement
  • the Ku Klux Klan
  • the American Civil Liberties Union
  • the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • the Anti-Defamation League
  • the passing of the 18thand 19thAmendments
  • the changes in immigration policy

Finally, read about the new trends of the arts, the spread of radio, and the growth of American cities. 

The Great Depression and the New Deal

This time period covers 1929 to 1939.

You have to know about the 1929 stock market crash, the New Deal policies, and the effects/controversies of the New Deal policies.

Make sure you read about the impact of the Great Depression, including the physical impact caused by natural disasters and agricultural methods.

World War II

This time period spans from 1939-1945.

You need to think about America’s involvement in World War II, including the changes of foreign policy before, during, after the war.

Also, make sure you know these events and issues that will more than likely show up on the test:

  • internment of people of Japanese ancestry
  • the Holocaust
  • the role of minorities in the war
  • the role of women at home
  • major developments in technology
  • the atomic bomb

Post-World War II America

This period focuses on the time right after World War II.

For this time period, you need to know about the change of immigration patterns, the increased presence of the federal government, new technology developments of the time, and the major domestic policies.

Post-World War II U.S. Foreign Policy

This time period focuses on foreign policy beginning after World War II up to the present.

For this section, you need to know all about:

  • the Cold War
  • the Truman Doctrine
  • the Marshall Plan
  • the North American Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • the South East Asian Treaty (SEATO)
  • the Warsaw Pact
  • the Korean War
  • McCarthyism
  • the Vietnam War

Civil Rights Movement

And, finally, the last time period covers from about 1954-1968.

For this section, you need to know about the important people, events, policies, and court cases regarding civil rights and the impact of each on America.

Finally, read about the women’s rights movement.

Whew, that’s a lot of time periods, events, people, and issues to know about. You could do an internet search for each of these broad topics (and hope you find quality, accurate resources). Or, you can find a trusted study guide to use (I know a great one!).

Specific Concepts for U.S. History

Right now, I’m going to give you five specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation was the first governing document for the United States of America. These Articles created a weak federal government that really couldn’t respond to the demands of the new nation. The Articles of Confederation was replaced by the U.S Constitution of 1787.

13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

These three amendments were ratified after the Civil War and eliminate slavery in the U.S. and secure voting rights for any race ethnicity. More specifically:

The 13thamendment abolished slavery.

The 14thamendment ensured citizenship rights and protections to all former slaves.

The 15thamendment gave African American men the right to vote.

Spanish-American War

After the end of the Indian Wars in the 1870s and the settlement of the Great Plains by thousands of immigrants in the 1880s, Americans had nowhere else to expand on the North American continent. However, the need for new markets and new space continued, leading into an era of American imperialism, as Americans set their sights on overseas.

Meanwhile, by 1897, the Cuban effort for independence was in full swing and Americans were sympathetic to their cause, as well as interested in increasing their political and economic influence in the Caribbean. On February 15, 1897, the USS Maine sank in the port of Havana   and America blamed the Spanish. This was the last straw for American sentiments and the United States declared war on Spain.

The war was fought in the Atlantic and the Pacific. It only lasted four months and the United States was the clear victor in the conflict. In the Treaty of Paris (1898) the United States gained Spain’s colonies in the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico; and Cuba gained its independence in the treaty, although the US added a provision, the Platt Amendment, allowing for American oversight of their political decisions.

Politically, the war established the United States as a world power and effectively ended the Spanish Empire. The war solidified the United States as a naval power and led to the rise of Theodore Roosevelt as an American icon.

McCarthyism 

Put very simply, the term McCarthyism is used when innocent people are victimized using significant but unproven accusations. The term comes from the 1950s when U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy accused many people in the U.S. federal government of communism and treason.

Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement was a mass popular movement to secure equal rights for African-Americans who faced racism and segregation.

Some notable events to research and know are:

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1957)
  • Little Rock 9 (1957)
  • March on Washington (1963)

Selma to Montgomery March (1965)

U.S. Geography

This section will include questions about the physical features of the U.S. and its people.

These competencies look very similar to the World Geography competencies. In fact, they are the exact same. So, let’s just apply this knowledge to some specific concepts for U.S. Geography.

Specific Concepts for U.S. Geography

These are very likely to appear on the test.

Physical Regions of U.S.

You need to know the 4 different physical regions of the U.S. Within each region, there are various divisions:

  • Northeast
  • New England
  • Mid-Atlantic
  • Midwest
  • East North Central
  • West North Central
  • South
  • South Atlantic
  • East South Central
  • West South Central
  • West
  • Mountain
  • Pacific

Make sure you know which states fall into each region.

Important Physical Features of North America

The following are important physical features that spread throughout North America, including the U.S.:

Appalachian Mountains: A mountain range running vertically in Eastern North America. The range forms a barrier inhibiting east-west travel along the entire length of the eastern side of the continent. The Appalachians contain large deposits of coal, leading to a booming coal industry that can have serious environmental consequences.

Mississippi River: Starting in Minnesota, the Mississippi River runs slowly down to the Gulf of Mexico. The waterways of 31 states and 2 Canadian provinces drain into the Mississippi. The Mississippi River has served as host to several significant populations and civilizations, a barrier to travel, and as a significant avenue for trade. In the 1700 and 1800s, the world’s powers all vied to control the river because by doing so, they controlled the continent’s trade.

Rocky Mountains: Stretching over 3,000 miles from British Columbia in Canada to New Mexico, the Rockies are the tallest mountain chain in North America. The Continental Divide is located in the Rockies. All water to the west of the divide flows to the Pacific, while all water to the east flows to the Atlantic.

Thematic Maps 

You may be asked to look at state-by-state thematic maps to compare or contrast regions within the U.S. A thematic map depicts a particular special topic in an area. For example, an electoral map is a thematic map.

And that’s some basic info about the U.S. History and U.S. Geography subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

We’ve got the best study guides for the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 test. So, if you’re feeling overwhelmed and you don’t even know where to begin to figure out how to teach phonemic awareness or how to identify the different characteristics of the stages of writing, we’ve got you covered.

You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

Get the Study Guide

CSET Social Science: Civics, Economics, and California History

Overview

You will have 105 minutes to complete 40 multiple-choice questions and 3 constructed-response questions.

Subtest III has three parts: Civics, Economics, and California History. They can be further broken down into these concepts or time periods:

  • Civics
    • Principles of American Democracy
    • Fundamental Values and Principles of Civil Society
    • The Three Branches of Government
    • Landmark U.S. Supreme Court Cases
    • Issues Regarding Campaigns for National, State, and Local Elective Offices
    • Powers and Procedures of the National, State, Local and Tribal Governments
    • The Media in American Political Life
    • Political Systems
    • Tensions within our Constitutional Democracy
  • Economics
    • Economic Terms and Concepts and Economic Reasoning
    • Elements of America’s Market Economy in a Global Setting
    • The Relationship between Politics and Economics
    • Elements of the U.S. Labor Market in a Global Setting
    • Aggregate Economic Behavior of the American Economy
    • International Trade and the American Economy
  • California History
    • Pre-Columbian Period Through the End of Mexican Rule
    • From the Gold Rush to the Present

So, let’s start with Civics.

Civics

This section tests your knowledge on the rights and duties of citizenship.

Let’s talk about what you need to know for each civics competency.

Principles of American Democracy

For this concept, you need to know what influenced and shaped the development of the American government. Think about important American documents like the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Be able to compare the Bill of Rights to English Common Law.

Know the Founding Fathers’ contributions to America and the principles of democracy:

  • autonomy/liberty
  • equality
  • basic opportunity
  • debate and deliberation
  • representation

You have to understand the process of American law and the responsibilities of citizenship.

Finally, know what it takes to become an American citizen. Check out this resource for more info.

Fundamental Values and Principles of Civil Society

The first thing you need to know is about religion in America. Think about the historical role of religion and how people have been and currently are discriminated against for their religious beliefs.

The next big thing you need to know about is decision-making. More specifically, think about American citizens’ roles in the government. How do they participate and express their interests? Be able to compare their roles with roles of those living under authoritarian rule.

The Three Branches of Government

Make sure you know the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) and Articles I, II, and III.

Finally, you need to know why the checks and balances system isn’t always perfect and how the Constitution can be amended.

Landmark U.S. Supreme Court Cases

There have been a lot of really important, life-changing court cases. These decisions were the result of the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Constitution. Make sure you read the Bill of Rights, new amendments, and a thorough summary of each of these court cases:

  • Marbury v. Madison
  • McCullough v. Maryland
  • United States v. Nixon
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Miranda v. Arizona
  • Roe v. Wade
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
  • Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena
  • United States v. Virginia (VMI)
  • Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board

Think about the controversies surrounding these cases, especially about the changing interpretations of civil rights.

Issues Regarding Campaigns for National, State, and Local Elective Offices

This competency is all about politics. I know what you’re thinking. Great, politics. But I promise you it isn’t that bad.

You need to know the different political parties, both those of the past and present and how the basic political process works, including the electoral college.

Finally, be sure to know the terms state redistrictingand reapportionmentand the issues that surround them.

Powers and Procedures of the National, State, Local and Tribal Governments

For this section, you will have to answer questions about the government, at all levels. Know how the federal, state, local, and tribal governments are organized and what jurisdiction they have over certain issues. Also, think about the power and influence held by government officials.

The Media in American Political Life

You will more than likely see a question on the test about the role of media in the American political process. Make sure you know why a free press is important, the media’s role in America, and how government officials use the media to communicate.

Political Systems

You will more than likely see a question on the test about the role of media in the American political process. Make sure you know why a free press is important, the media’s role in America, and how government officials use the media to communicate.

Political Systems

This is another competency about politics. For this one, you need to know about the different political systems, like the parliamentary system, and the problems that new democracies have faced.

Tensions within our Constitutional Democracy

And finally, the last big concept for Civics. You may be asked about two tensions within American democracy: separation of church and state and a majority-rules system. Read about each of these and why they are considered tension-creators.

Wow, that was a lot of broad (kind of vague) info about Civics.

Specific Concepts for Civics

Right now, I’m going to give you five specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Common Law

These are laws created and developed through judicial decision, typically by courts (case law). Common law is derived from tradition and previous responses to situations. Common law originated in England.

The Constitution 

The Constitution is divided into seven articles:

  • Article 1- The Powers, Eligibility Requirements and Limitations of the Legislative Branch
  • Article 2- The Powers, Eligibility Requirements and Limitations of the Executive Branch
  • Article 3- The Powers, Eligibility Requirements and Limitations of the Judicial Branch
  • Article 4- The roles, rights, and privileges of the States and Their Citizens
  • Article 5- The Amendment Process
  • Article 6- Maintenance of Previous Debts, Supremacy of the Constitution, and Oaths of Office
  • Article 7- The Ratification Process

The structure of the US government is based, primarily, on the first three articles.

How Laws Are Made

A law is made when a bill is passed by Congress. This process, at a basic level, looks like this:

  1. A Congressional member creates a bill and presents it to a particular committee (each bill must be presented to the committee which deals with those matters). For example, a bill about highway improvements would be sent to the Transportation Committee.
  2. The chairperson decides whether or not to hear the bill. If the chairperson decides to hear the bill, it is brought before the committee.
  3. The committee hears testimony and debate on the bill, adds any amendments they wish, and then votes on the bill.
  4. If the bill passes out of committee, it is brought before the house it originates in, whether the Senate or House of Representatives. The house votes on it. If it passes with a simple majority, then the bill moves to the next house of Congress.
  5. Then the next house of Congress votes on the bill. If a majority of the members vote yes- it goes to the President who can either veto it- sending it back to Congress- or sign it into law.
  6. If a bill is vetoed, 2/3 of Congress can vote in favor of the bill and make it law.

 United States v. Nixon (1974)

This case ruled that the President did not have “an absolute, unqualified, Presidential privilege of immunity from the judicial process under all circumstances.”

The case was in response to President Nixon’s attempt to withhold key evidence in the Watergate scandal; the tapes had incriminating evidence that President Nixon had participated in illegal activities. 15 days after the ruling, President Nixon resigned from office.

The case is a landmark case because it is a key exercise of the checks and balances system where the Supreme Court limited the powers of the executive branch.

Amendment Process

There are two ways to amend the Constitution:

  1. Congress to States- An amendment can be passed if 2/3 of each house of Congress approves an amendment AND 3/4 of the State’s legislatures ratify the amendment.
  2. Constitutional Convention- If 2/3 of the States call together a Constitutional Convention, the convention can amend the constitution. These amendments take effect when 3/4 of the states ratify the new amendments.

Economics

This section tests your knowledge on how people produce, distribute, trade, and consume goods and services.

Let’s talk about what you need to know for each economics competency.

Economic Terms and Concepts and Economic Reasoning

For this first competency, you have to know some basic economic terms like:

  • supply and demand
  • scarcity and choices
  • opportunity cost
  • marginal benefit
  • marginal cost

Check out this great introduction to economics here.

You also need to know some very basic behavioral economic concepts, like how incentives,   both monetary and non-monetary, motivate people.

Finally, make sure you know what a market economy and planned economy are.

Elements of America’s Market Economy in a Global Setting

For this section, you really need to understand America’s market economy and its role in the world. This includes knowing about:

  • substitutes
  • property rights
  • competition
  • profit
  • price controls
  • financial markets

The Relationship between Politics and Economics

Make sure you know how the government affects the economy through fiscal policy, monetary policy, social policy, and other decision-making. Also, think about how this decision-making relates to specific problems in America.

Elements of the U.S. Labor Market in a Global Setting

Regarding the labor market, you have to know how unions work and how they benefit their members. Also, think about America’s current situation in terms of skills in demand, wages, technology, competition, etc.

Aggregate Economic Behavior of the American Economy

Think about macroeconomics (big picture) here. Look up and know the ins and outs of these terms:

  • indexes
  • unemployment
  • inflation
  • real GDP
  • short- and long- term interest rates

International Trade and the American Economy

And finally, let’s think about international trade. Be sure and know these terms that relate to trade:

  • comparative advantage
  • General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • European Union (EU)
  • currency exchange rates

Specific Concepts for Economics

Right now, I’m going to give you five specific concepts to be familiar with because they will most likely appear on the test.

Scarcity

Scarcity is the basic problem of the gap between our wants/needs and the available resources. No human has all of the resources necessary to fulfill every need and desire. Because of this, people must use cost-benefit analysis to make their choices. This means that they make trade-offs and decisions as to best allocate their resources.

Opportunity of Cost 

Because all resources are scarce, all actions have an opportunity cost. An opportunity cost is the benefits you miss out on when you choose one thing over another.

Take a look at this example:

Bob is home alone on Tuesday night. He wants to watch a television program or play a computer game. He decides to play a computer game. The opportunity cost of playing the computer game is not watching television.

Be able to identify the opportunity cost of a choice.

Supply and Demand

In simple terms, supply is how much of something is available and demand is how much of something people want.

There are a lot of factors that affect supply and demand, and its actually pretty complicated. Take some time to read about supply and demand and know these terms:

  • Law of demand
  • Law of supply
  • Economics of scale
  • Equilibrium
  • Disequilibrium
  • Surplus
  • Deficit
  • Elasticity

Competition

Voluntary exchange and private property, combined with the natural scarcity of resources, creates an environment of competition among market participants. This is the driving force of a capitalist economy.

In theory, firms will strive for a greater share of the market to sell or buy goods or services. In doing so, they must create goods of higher quality and cheaper price to attract customers to consume their products. When firms compete in this manner, the best firms are awarded profits and are able to continue, while weak firms are punished with losses and—if they do not adapt—are driven from the market. The consumer wins when companies compete because they receive a better product, typically at a cheaper price.

Comparative Advantage

This is the ability of an entity to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another entity.

Check out this resource.

California History

This section tests your knowledge on past Californian events and people.

Let’s talk about what you need to know for the two California history competencies.

Pre-Columbian Period Through the End of Mexican Rule

For this time period, you need to know about California’s American Indians, the impact of Spanish exploration and colonization, and the causes and impact of the Mexican-American War. 

From the Gold Rush to the Present

The last bit of Californian history you need to know includes the gold rush, history of immigration, constitutional and political development, and major environmental issues.

Specific Concepts for California History

Right now, I’m going to give you two specific concepts to be familiar with because they could appear on the test.

The Gold Rush

Shortly after the acquisition of the California lands, massive deposits of gold were discovered, leading to a gold rush. Prospectors migrated to the region in hopes of striking rich with gold. Tens of billions of dollars’ worth of gold bullion would be found by miners, but the majority of the miners would not strike it rich, and even some who did gamble and spent their fortune away.

In hindsight, many benefactors of the land rush were not the miners, but service providers such as bartenders, tailors, and shop owners. The largest effect of the gold rush was the instant increase in population in the western lands. Upon reaching California, many settlers chose not to leave but began farming or otherwise settling the area.

The Mexican-American War

In 1845, the United States annexed the Republic of Texas, which ignited a war with Mexico because they felt they still had a right to the Texas lands. The war did not last long as the United States was a stronger military and economic power. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848.

This treaty gave the northern Mexican lands to the United States, including modern-day California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona, in exchange for 18 million dollars. The result of the Mexican-America War was that America finally achieved the expansion from one ocean to another.

And that’s some basic info about the Civics, Economics, and California History subtest.

Getting the Help You Need

And if this seems like a lot of information, it’s because it is. This is a test that decides if you can teach the next generation of leaders. But if you’re feeling overwhelmed, don’t be.

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You see, our study guides are filled with hundreds of pages of instructional content and hundreds of authentic practice questions that are going to walk you through the exact concepts we’re talking about in this video in much more depth and detail. And it takes you from knowing what’s on the test to knowing what you need to know to be successful on the test and equipping you with that information so that you can be successful when you take this test.

So, if at any point, you’re just overwhelmed or you want to save a lot of time and a lot of headaches, hop over to 240tutoring.com, get the Praxis Elementary Education 5001 study guide, and make sure you’re prepared today. 

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CSET: Social Studies Practice Test

World History and World Geography Practice Test

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

Which of the following is the greatest contributing factor to the fall of the Western Roman Empire?

  1. Pressure on the northern frontiers by Germanic tribes and the decline of central authority
  2. Lead water pipes that poisoned the ruling class
  3. The feeding of Christians to the lions as entertainment for the Romans
  4. Increased pressure of trying to feed the enormous population of Rome

Correct answer: 1. 

The fall of the Western Roman Empire is marked by a series of events beginning in the late 4th century. Many of these markers, such as the deaths of emperors, resulted in political instability. Also, Germanic tribes in the northern regions began to recapture many Roman lands and apply pressure on the northern borders of Rome, eventually sacking Rome in 410 and 455.

Question 2

One reason the American Revolution is significant in world history is because it:

  1. delayed the Industrial Revolution in Europe
  2. ended British influence in the Western Hemisphere
  3. adopted reforms from the French Revolution
  4. set an example for future revolutions and constitutional governments

Correct answer: 4. 

The American Revolution was one of the first successful revolutions where a colony gained independence from its parent country. Over the next hundred and fifty years, colonies in Asia, India, Africa, and Central and South America would begin their own revolutions to gain independence. As the countries gained independence, many established constitutional governments that emulated the Constitution crafted by our Founding Fathers.

Question 3

Which of the following factors best explains the power of the Church in the Middle Ages?

  1. The Church levied heavy fines against those who fought against it
  2. There were no governments to maintain law and order
  3. Those who disapproved of Church doctrine were excommunicated
  4. Paying homage to the Church was a first priority

Correct answer: 3. 

The power of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages (5th century to the 14th century) was derived from the power to excommunicate people from the Church. Excommunication meant the person was not a part of the Church, could not take communion, and was eternally damned to hell. The belief the Church could dictate a person’s eternal destiny was a strong power. Furthermore, being excommunicated would result in an ostracism, or expulsion, from society.

Question 4

What was the influence of the Industrial Revolution on the population densities of urban and rural communities?

  1. Both populations remained constant
  2. Rural population increased as urban areas decreased
  3. The female populations of urban areas increased while the male populations of rural areas increased
  4. Urban areas grew rapidly as rural populations declined

Correct answer: 4. 

The population of rural areas experienced a decline as farmers migrated to urban areas in search of factory jobs. Factory jobs had many benefits such as a higher, consistent pay, and they were close to the amenities of city life. The city was an attractive place for the rural population. Another factor is that technological advances increased agricultural productivity. The increased productivity increased the supply of food and decreased the price (supply and demand). With decreasing agricultural prices, farmers sought a more stable occupation in cities.

Question 5

Most early civilizations were founded by which of the following geographic features?

  1. On top of a mountain so inhabitants could identify a threat well in advance
  2. A mountain to protect one or more sides of a city
  3. A river because of the need for a freshwater source and agricultural advantages of a nearby water source
  4. In caves to ensure protection from the elements

Correct answer: 3. 

This is the best answer. Almost every early civilization was founded near a freshwater source, such as a river, so that the citizens could easily obtain water.

Question 6

Which of the following is least important to the development and shaping of cultures?

  1. Types of food consumed
  2. Traditions written and passed down through history
  3. Interactions of people and ideals
  4. The geography of the region

Correct answer: 1. 

Although food does help shape culture, the type of food people eat does not form bonds and similarities as much as the other answer options.

Question 7

Which of the following geographic factors favored the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt,    India, and China?

  1. All four civilizations were located in tropical climates
  2. All four civilizations were located along the banks of major rivers
  3. All four civilizations were located near coastlines
  4. All four civilizations were located in higher grounds free of diseases

Correct answer: 2. 

Each of the four civilizations developed around a large river. The main reason for settling near a large river is to take advantage of a close freshwater source. As the        civilizations developed, they began diverting water for irrigation purposes. The rivers that the civilizations began next to were Egypt- The Nile; Mesopotamia- The Tigris and Euphrates; China- The Yellow River and the Yangtze River; India- The Indus and Ganges.

Question 8

What political factor distinguished Egypt from other civilizations of the Fertile Crescent?

  1. They had a religious system in which the gods provided protection against nature
  2. They had a strong central government led by a family of kings
  3. They learned how to organize workers to build temples
  4. They gave their women rights to own property

Correct answer: 2. 

The rulers of ancient Egypt were pharaohs and were the leaders of a strong centralized government. The benefit of the dynastic rule of the pharaohs is that it     provided political stability to the region and allowed resources to be devoted to arts and sciences instead of war. The rule of the pharaohs was typically transferred from father to son.

Question 9

Which of the following contributions from the Byzantine Empire was important in organizing the governments of Western Europe during the Renaissance period?

  1. The Emperor Justinian preserving Roman law
  2. Preserving the iconic art of the Eastern Orthodox Church
  3. The preservation of literature of ancient Greece and Rome
  4. The sending of missionaries to Eastern Europe

Correct answer: 1. 

Justinian I (482-527) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, who sought to return the Roman Empire to its classical glory. He ordered his generals and governors to retake the lost lands of the Western Roman Empire and was notably successful. However, Justinian is most remembered for the consolidating and rewriting of the Roman laws. These laws, commonly known as the Justinian Code, set an example for judicial systems across the world and still influence civil law today.

Question 10

Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the photograph above?

  1. Most of the world’s population lives in the Southern Hemisphere
  2. Most of the world’s population lives in the Northern Hemisphere
  3. The western half of the United States is more heavily populated than the eastern half
  4. The mainland of Australia is heavily populated

Correct answer: 2. 

The lights represent where humans are living. Almost all the lights are shown in the northern half of the world, which would encompass the Northern Hemisphere.

US History and Geography Practice Test

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

The New Deal was most influenced by which political ideology?

  1. Isolationism
  2. Republicanism
  3. Progressivism
  4. Anti-Federalism

Correct answer: 3. 

Progressivism advocates for social, political, and economic reform through state avenues. The New Deal was wide sweeping legislation that aimed to stabilize the U.S. economy.

Question 2

The Proclamation of 1763 angered the American colonists because:

  1. it ruled that colonists would no longer have representation in parliament
  2. it ruled the settling of the Ohio River Valley was forbidden
  3. it instituted new tariffs specifically on the American colonies to pay for debts of the French and Indian War
  4. set the precedent for the Intolerable Acts

Correct answer: 2. 

The French and Indian War was fought, in the colonists’ perspective, to allow the colonists to settle the Ohio River Valley. King George realized protecting the colonists would be too difficult and issued the Proclamation of 1763 to forbid colonists to settle the area. England was already much indebted after the French and Indian War and could not afford fighting the Ohio River Valley inhabitants over land claims.

Question 3

The Native American Removal Act of 1820, which resulted in the resettlement west of the Mississippi, was for the purpose of:

  1. opening up Native American land in the South to American farmers
  2. punishing the native people for cooperating with the British in the War of 1812
  3. creating competition among the native people in the West
  4. creating a buffer zone between the U.S. and the Spanish

Correct answer: 1. 

The Native American Removal Act of 1820 was to encourage the migration of Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi. Americans in the southern states began desiring Native American land for settlement and lobbied the U.S. government to remove the Native Americans from the states. Eventually, the U.S. Army would forcibly relocate many Indians along the Trail of Tears.

Question 4

Manifest Destiny inspired Americans to migrate westward and settle the land between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. Which of the following is a major long-term effect of this westward expansion by the United States?

  1. The growth of agriculture and mineral operations in the United States
  2. Increased tensions between the United States and France
  3. Increased tensions between the United States and Great Britain
  4. A peaceful relationship with American Indians

Correct answer: 1. 

This is correct. Much of the land settled by Americans in the 19th century was west of the Mississippi and the land was great for farming and had many natural resources, like gold, silver, and oil, that Americans extracted.

Question 5

The Cold War Era was marked by all the following except the:

  1. American policy of containment
  2. use of espionage and subversion
  3. formation of military alliances
  4. use of nuclear weapons in small wars

Correct answer: 4. 

The Cold War refers to the political tension between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II. Both countries threatened the use of nuclear weapons. The Cold War is characterized by the democratic United States fighting the evils and oppression of communism, embodied by the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989 (the Soviet Union disbanded).

Question 6

“This is no time to right with one hand, when both are needed; that this is no time to fight only with your white hand, and allow your black hand to remain tied… A man drowning would not refuse to be saved even by a colored hand.” — Frederick Douglass, 1861

Based on the quote above, Frederick Douglass is most likely arguing for which of the following?

  1. African-Americans to fight in the Confederate Army
  2. Whites to fight for the rights of black Americans
  3. African-Americans to fight in the Union Army
  4. African-Americans to fight in the Revolutionary Army

Correct answer: 3. 

The above quote references withholding a black hand from a fight; this     word-choice combined with the knowledge that Frederick Douglass was an activist for black           rights and the date of the quote support the conclusion that Douglass is talking about letting             black soldiers fight in the Union Army.

Question 7

Which of the following was the primary reason for the growth of national markets in the U.S. during the last half of the 19th century?

  1. The growth of the oil industry
  2. The invention of the steamboat
  3. The expansion of the railroad system
  4. The urbanization of the workforce

Correct answer: 3. 

The expansion of the railroad system in the 19th century connected large portions of the country with a quick and efficient transportation option. Instead of horse and cart, goods could be shipped by train. This greatly reduced the cost and time of transportation, leading to a huge boom in trade across the country.

Question 8

The suburban neighborhood above is most likely to be seen after which of the following world events?

  1. The Great Depression
  2. The Cold War
  3. World War I
  4. World War II

Correct answer: 4. 

Suburban home development became popular after World War II when many of the soldiers came back to the United States and wanted to start families and lead a          quieter life than they had known during the war. The rise of automobile ownership made commuting flexible and easy; prices of land outside cities and the mass development of homes at a single time made home ownership affordable to the middle class. The rise of the automobile, the return of soldiers from war, and the demand for home ownership contributed to the popularity of suburban development after World War II.

Question 9

In what way has glacial activity and erosion affected the Appalachian Mountains?

  1. By removing the large rocks and stones from the surface
  2. By causing them to shift their location over the years
  3. By encouraging the formation of new varieties of vegetation at their base
  4. By causing the peaks to be rounded off and causing them to lose much of their height

Correct answer: 4. 

The erosional effects of glaciation are enormous due to the mass of weight and the volume of water as ice. As glaciers move over the land, they pick up rocks which they use as grinding tools to chip away the surface materials.

Question 10

Which of the following best describes the primary purpose for the first European settlers settling around the San Francisco Bay area?

  1. The bay was rich with gold deposits
  2. The bay was far from government oversight, so individuals could evade taxes on various economic goods
  3. The area was rich in oil deposits
  4. The bay was a natural harbor that protected ships inside the bay from turbulent weather and conditions outside the bay

Correct answer: 4. 

This is the correct answer. One of the most important features when settling a new land is the creation of a harbor so that goods can be shipped in and out of the region. Therefore, areas like New York, Charleston, and New Orleans are so significant. They are natural harbors. When the first settlers settled California, one of their highest priorities was establishing a harbor for trade; the San Francisco Bay area is a natural harbor.

Civics, Economics, and California History

Now, let’s look at a few practice questions in each area to see how these concepts might actually appear on the real test.

Ready? Let’s go!

Question 1

Which idea was established in the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison?

  1. Separate but Equal is an unconstitutional idea to implement in legislation
  2. Congress has the authority, granted from the Necessary and Proper clause, to create a National Bank of the United States
  3. Separate but Equal is upheld by the Constitution
  4. The Supreme Court can rule congressional legislation unconstitutional

Correct answer: 4. 

Judicial review is the ability of the Supreme Court to strike down congressional legislation that it sees as “unconstitutional.” This is an implied power that the Supreme Court granted itself in 1803.

Question 2

The first peaceful transition between two major political ideologies occurred in the United States during the:

  1. election of George Washington
  2. election of John Adams
  3. Revolution of 1800
  4. repeal of the Alien and Sedition Acts

Correct answer: 3. 

The Revolution of 1800 is the nickname given by Thomas Jefferson to the Presidential Election of 1800. The incumbent President, John Adams, was a Federalist and Thomas Jefferson was a member of the Anti-Federalist party. The two parties held significantly different political ideologies; Federalists generally wanted a strong central government and Anti-Federalists generally wanted a weak central government in favor of state’s rights.

Question 3

Which of the following most influenced the development of representative government in the United States?

  1. Second Treatise of Government by John Locke
  2. The Rights of Man by Thomas Paine
  3. Democracy in America by Alexis Tocqueville
  4. The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx

Correct answer: 1. 

Second Treatise of Government by John Locke was published in 1689 and had a significant influence on the development of representative government in the U.S. In the book, Locke states that the best government is a contract between the people and the government, establishing that the people should give power to the government and that the power of the government should come from the people and not a king or monarchy.

Question 4

In the 19th century, the New England states mainly produced manufactured textile products while the South produced agricultural products like tobacco and cotton. Which economic principle best explains this?

  1. Inflation
  2. Supply and demand
  3. Opportunity cost
  4. Comparative advantage

Correct answer: 4. 

Comparative advantage refers to the idea that a specific person, people, or geographic area had an advantage in the production process of a good. For example, the southern colonies were better suited at cotton and tobacco production than the northern colonies; the southern colonies had an economic advantage in the production of cotton and tobacco.

Question 5

In economics, an “opportunity cost” refers to the cost of:

  1. the next-best forgone activity
  2. monetary loss resulting from an action
  3. utility lost by not pursuing another option
  4. the sum of all forgone opportunities

Correct answer: 1. 

Opportunity cost is the concept that the cost of an activity is not the monetary loss a person receives, but rather what could their time and efforts have otherwise been dedicated to. If a person is deciding between becoming a teacher or a lawyer, then the cost of becoming a teacher is that the person will not become a lawyer (as that is the next alternative).

Question 6

Which of the following will most likely increase labor productivity in a workforce?

  1. Division of labor
  2. An increase in government regulations
  3. An increase in the cost of capital
  4. A decrease of technological innovation

Correct answer: 1. 

The division of labor is dividing laborers into different divisions that focus on one task. An example would be the assembly line. Instead of one laborer performing all the functions, it is more efficient to have many workers doing many functions as it will increase productivity.

Question 7

In the fall of 2014, the price of oil fell sharply from an average of over $100 per barrel to less than $50 per barrel. Based on the principles of supply and demand, which of the following is most likely true?

  1. The price decline caused an increase in capital investment in oil production
  2. The price decline was caused by an increased demand for oil
  3. The price decline was caused by a decrease in oil production
  4. The price decline was caused by an overproduction of oil

Correct answer: 4. 

As the supply increases, the price normally decreases. The more of a product there is, the less competition among consumers to purchase the product.

Question 8

Which event marked the decline of missions in California?

  1. The Mexican War of Independence
  2. The Mexican-American War
  3. The discovery of gold in Northern California
  4. The capture of Santa Anna by Texas revolutionaries

Correct answer: 1. 

The new Mexican government prioritized increasing trade and resource production over the establishment of missions. Mexico began offering land to settlers that would establish cattle ranches and did not continue the support of the Spanish missions.

Question 9

Which of the following events most directly contributed to California becoming a United States Territory?

  1. The Gold Rush of 1848
  2. United States annexing Texas
  3. The Mexican-American War
  4. The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869

Correct answer: 2. 

The United States’ annexation of Texas sparked the Mexican-American War; once the U.S. won the war, they acquired California in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Question 10

Which of the following 20thcentury construction projects directly resulted in migration to California from other states?

  1. Route 66
  2. The Panama Canal
  3. The Los Angeles suburbs
  4. The Golden Gate Bridge

Correct answer: 1. 

This is the best answer as drivers from across the U.S. could take Route 66 to California. Route 66 was a road that stretched from New York to California and accommodated many travelers moving to California.

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